The implementation of the regimen, the standard daily routine, including three meals a day on a hot trip, has a positive effect on human health and performance. Therefore, when switching from normal home conditions to camp conditions, one cannot sharply change the already established dietary regimen and the nature of food. This leads to negative phenomena..
The organization of hot meals on the hike, the features of two-time and three-time hot meals, the distribution of caloric intake.
For example, in mountain tourists, when climbing to a height, a sharp change in diet and the nature of food can disrupt digestion. Contribute to constipation or diarrhea, and sometimes nausea. That is why it is advisable that tourists gradually adapt their established regime to hiking conditions, trying to make as few changes as possible in this regime.
In the afternoon, the duration of the group’s movement along the route, as a rule, does not exceed 3 hours. Sometimes in simple trips at the beginning of the afternoon, the group stops at the bivouac. Therefore, if in the first case (continued movement), lunch and breakfast are equivalent, then in the second case, the goal of lunch is the restoration of substances and energy expended by the body.
Such a dinner should contain a high percentage of animal proteins (which means meat), a large amount of carbohydrates and fats. Lunch should include the bulk of food containing hard-to-digest foods that are rich in fiber, and which linger in the stomach for the longest time. Calorie lunch 30-35%.
The value of dinner is to completely restore the energy expended before lunch (which cannot be achieved by lunch alone), to prepare the body for movement along the route the next day. It is necessary that the assortment of products, including dinner, contribute to the restoration of tissue proteins and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves in the body.
However, for dinner you should not eat foods that linger for a long time in the stomach, sharply excite the nervous system and the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. It should include white cereals, fish dishes. Calorie dinner 25%.
Features of the organization of three meals a day on a camping trip.
Hot food should be plentiful, as the feeling of fullness depends not only on calories, but also on the duration of its stay in the stomach. Food, even very calorie, but small in volume, can not cause a feeling of satiety. Hot food should be varied. It is undesirable to allow frequent repetition of dishes of the same nature.
So, neutral soups (pasta, noodles, with cereals) should be alternated with sour (borsch, pickle), and pasta and cereal side dishes – with vegetables. It is not recommended to cook dishes from the same products on the same day. For example, a soup with noodles or pasta and a vermicelli side dish for the second dish. A hearty and high-calorie dish is obtained from fried sublimated pork with a side dish of cereals. Within 6 hours, a person experiences a state of satiety.
Dry food negatively affects the body of a tourist, depletes his strength. However, it is not possible to completely avoid it in a tourist trip, even the simplest in complexity. Even with the organization of three meals a day, the gap between breakfast and lunch is 6-8 hours. It is during this period that the greatest load on the body falls.
Already 1.5-2 hours after breakfast, replenishment of energy costs is required. Therefore, every tourist in the pockets of a storm jacket should have a stock of quickly digestible products: sugar, glucose, sweets, a mixture of nuts and raisins. They must be consumed after 40-50 minutes (on a short halt). Pro-caloric diet should be up to 10-15% of the daily diet.
Two-time hot meals and large amounts of food.
Two-time hot meals are harmful. Since the amount of food consumed in one meal significantly exceeds the norm. When filling the stomach, the diaphragm rises, which adversely affects the activity of the respiratory and circulatory organs.
In addition, large amounts of food are a significant obstacle to the processing of its digestive juices, which in this case are simply lacking. Enzyme activity also decreases. A person who has eaten heavily becomes drowsy, his performance decreases.
Organization of three meals a day in difficult mountain, ski and ski trips.
The organization of three meals a day in difficult mountain, ski and ski trips is almost impossible. It takes up to 2 hours to prepare even two dishes, if necessary, to obtain water from snow. Depending on the air temperature, snow conditions, the location of the kitchen. In winter travels, spending on cooking already short daylight hours is simply not permissible.
It would seem that tourists should take a break of at least 1.5–2 hours between food and the start of movement. But even this is not always possible for participants in difficult trips. Fortunately, the human digestive organs adapt to activities in various conditions. In particular, during muscular work, in conditions of significant physical activity shortly after eating.
Organization of two hot meals a day in difficult mountain, ski and ski trips.
The amount of hot food in difficult mountain, ski and ski trips usually consists of two dishes. For the first, a semi-liquid dish is prepared (soup, porridge) with a large amount of lean meat. The second hot dish is a plentiful drink: tea, coffee, cocoa, kissel or compote. Here, by the way, it will be noted that prolonged use of crackers in large quantities leads to prolonged diarrhea.
The calorie content of breakfast during the organization of two hot meals should be 35% of the daily allowance, and dinner – 30%. A 5% decrease is due to less oil, meat, etc..
A day break when organizing two-time hot meals an average of 12 hours. At this time, the main physical load associated with high energy costs. Movement along a route, overcoming complex natural obstacles, maintaining body temperature at a constant level in conditions of low ambient temperature.
That is why, already in the middle of the day, the participants in the trip have a feeling of hunger, and their performance is sharply reduced. In this case, as well as when organizing three meals a day, a tourist should have a stock of easily digestible products in an easily accessible place. Sugar, glucose, sweets, as well as prunes – to quench your thirst. The caloric content of their daily intake should be up to 10% of the daily norm. Tourists consume these products at each short rest after 40-50 minutes of movement.
Food for long breaks.
In addition to such short and frequent halts, after every 3 hours of movement the group should stop for longer halts. 20-40 minutes in the summer and 10-15 minutes in the winter. The participants of the campaign are issued with them:
Canned meat paste or cod liver.
Non-greasy, easily soaking biscuits.
Sweet hot drink from a thermos (in winter) or plain water with citric acid extract (in summer).
The calorie content of such a diet should be 25% of the daily norm.
Caloric distribution of hot food throughout the day.
So, depending on the type of food (three meals a day or two meals a day), hot food is distributed throughout the day by caloric value (in% of the daily norm) as follows:
When organizing three hot meals a day.
Breakfast – 30%
Lunch – 35%
Dinner – 25%
Small halt – 10%
When organizing two hot meals a day.
Breakfast – 35%
Dinner – 30%
Small halt – 10%
Big halt – 25%
If you plan an early exit to the route (due to the need to overcome rockfall, avalanche sites or other tactical considerations), it is advisable to prepare breakfast the day before, in the evening.
If there is an autoclave in the group, it is necessary to immediately pack a hot breakfast, wrap the autoclave in a clean cover and a warm jacket, and put it in a multi-seat sleeping bag at your feet. In the morning the group will have enough hot food. If there is no autoclave, warming up the finished food will take a little time..
Eating hot food instead of eating dry food will significantly increase the strength of the group, help warm up during the hours of morning frost, and increase the number of running hours by eliminating a stop for lunch. And with an early exit of the group without hot food, there will be a need for such a stop.
Organization of three hot meals a summer camping trip. Caloric intake.
In summer hikes, even of a high category of difficulty, especially walking and water, in conditions of long daylight hours, three meals a day should be organized. It is especially recommended when traveling in southern areas. Here in the hottest time of the day (from 12-13 to 16-17 hours) you need a large rest with lunch and afternoon rest. The caloric content of daily nutrition in this case is distributed as follows:
Breakfast – 35%
Dinner – 25%
Meals at halts – 15%
Based on materials from the book Homemade Travel Equipment.