Water barriers and crossings through them, methods and types of water crossings, means of overcoming water barriers, engineering equipment and maintenance of water crossings, allowance.

first tier off its shore. When organizing the forcing of water barriers, combined-arms units are assigned forcing sections within which various types of water crossings are equipped.

The number and types of water crossings equipped in the forcing areas depend on the composition of the crossing units, the formation of a battle formation, the availability of crossing facilities, the nature of the water barrier and other conditions. Troops can also overcome water obstacles in other types of combat and during various movements. In all cases, forcing (overcoming) water barriers requires careful preparation, timely equipment of water crossings and their skillful maneuver during the maintenance of crossings.

The main content of overcoming the water barrier by the troops is the process of crossing, i.e., the movement of troops in any way from the original shore to the opposite. A crossing is a section of a water barrier with the surrounding area and the necessary crossing-bridge and other means, equipped to overcome the water barrier with troops one of the possible ways.

Depending on the means used and the nature of the water barrier, the following types of water crossings are distinguished:

– Airborne crossings on combat floating vehicles (BMP, BTR), on floating conveyors (PTS-2, PTS-4), on boats (DL-10, NL-8), on landing and landing vehicles.
– Ferry crossings on self-propelled ferries (PMM, PMM-2), on ferries collected from pontoon parks (PMP, PMP-M, PPS-84, PP-91, PP-2005) and ferries from local boats and materials.
– Bridge crossings, which can be in the form of floating bridges built from pontoon parks (PMP, PMP-M, PPS-84, PP-91, PP-2005), bridges on rigid supports (mechanized bridges TMM, MTU-20, MTU -72, MTU-90), collapsible bridges (РММ-4, МАРМ, САРМ, БАРМ, etc.), low-water bridges, permanent bridges, combined bridges consisting of overpasses and a floating section of the bridge.
– Ferry crossing.
– Crossings of tanks under water.
– Ice Crossings.

Depending on the technical capabilities of the crossing facilities and the conditions for overcoming the water barrier, various types of water crossings are equipped in a certain sequence. By destination, they distinguish between main, spare and false crossings. Troops are allowed through the main crossings. Spare crossings are equipped to duplicate the main crossings in the event of their destruction or to maneuver in order to reduce the vulnerability of troops in the process of overcoming water obstacles. False crossings are equipped to increase the survivability of the main and spare crossings.

The contents of the book Water barriers and crossings through them, methods and types of water crossings, means of overcoming water barriers.

Introduction.
1. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT WATER BARRIERS AND CROSSINGS.
1.1. Brief historical background.
1.2. Classification of water barriers.
1.3. Methods and types of crossings.
Questions for control and self-examination.

2. CONDITION AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEANS FOR OVERCOMING WATER OBSTACLES.
2.1. Means of overcoming water barriers.
2.2. Pontoon parks.
2.3. Powerboats.
2.4. Crossing equipment.
2.5. Bridge building equipment.
2.6. Collapsible Bridges.
2.7. Mechanized bridges.
Questions for control and self-examination.

3. ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT AND CONTENT.
3.1. Landing crossings.
3.2. Ferry crossings.
3.3. Bridge crossings.
3.4. Crossings of tanks under water.
3.5. Wade Crossings.
3.6. Ice crossings.
Questions for control and self-examination.

4. ORGANIZATION OF COMMANDANT, RESCUE AND EVACUATION SERVICES AT CROSSING.
4.1. Curfew service.
4.2. Curfew in various types of combat.
4.3. Rescue and evacuation service.
4.4. Crossing protection.
4.5. Crossing camouflage.
Questions for control and self-examination.

5. ENGINEERIC EXPLORATION OF A WATER BARRIER IN ORDER TO CHOOSE A CROSSING PLACE.
5.1. Goals and objectives of engineering reconnaissance of water barriers.
5.2. Means of engineering intelligence of water barriers.
5.3. Characterization of water barriers.
5.4. Procedure for engineering reconnaissance patrol for reconnaissance of a water obstacle.
Questions for control and self-examination.

Appendix 1. The main abbreviations used in combat documents.
Appendix 2. The main conventions used in combat documents.
Appendix 3. Engineering Intelligence Card.

Water barriers and crossings through them, methods and types of water crossings, means of overcoming water barriers, engineering equipment and maintenance of water crossings, manual DOWNLOAD book

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