Water purification and filtration, the simplest water filters in the field, in extreme and emergency situations.

Before quenching thirst with water from stagnant or low-flowing ponds, it should be disinfected, subjected to disinfection. And then water filtration is needed to clean it of insoluble particles and impurities (sand, clay), decay products of microorganisms, ions used for disinfection. 

However, if it is planned to disinfect water by boiling, then the sequence of the process changes first the water filtration, and then its disinfection. Proper water is colorless, has no taste or smell. Turbid water is a suspension of solid particles of various compositions.

Water purification and filtration, simplest water filters in the field, in extreme and emergency situations.

The content in water is harmful to human health:

Manganese in large quantities.
Iron generally does not have a harmful effect, but the taste and smell of glandular water are unpleasant both in raw form and after boiling.
Heavy metals (cadmium, copper, arsenic, mercury, lead) in small doses are harmless, but they accumulate in the body, are practically not eliminated from there and, at high concentrations, greatly undermine health. True, usually heavy metals are not found in surface waters. Unless of course, do not take water from the effluents of a mining and processing or chemical plant.
Calcium with Magnesium not harmful to humans. Their only drawback is that when boiling from their salts, scale forms, which affects the appearance of the dishes.

Sodium with Potassium in a large concentration give a salty or bitter taste to the water, depending on what prevails in the water along with them, chlorides, sulfates or fluorides. But such water is already closer to sea water, and it must be desalinated..
Really dangerous water content nitrogen compounds, being the product of a change or vital activity of living organisms. Their source can be, for example, rotting algae, fertilizers or sewage discharged into the river.
Bacteria there is in any water and contrary to popular belief, not all of their varieties die from boiling. Therefore, in order not to get sick with dysentery or something worse, it is highly advisable to filter and disinfect with combined methods. The most dangerous are bacteria of the group of Escherichia coli, called coliform bacteria. If they are present in water, then diseases cannot be avoided..

The simplest ways to purify water and filter it.

A simple filter for water from a can, bottle and improvised items.

The simplest filter for water purification is an empty tin can or a plastic bottle with two to three small holes punched in the bottom (cork) and two-thirds filled with fine sand. At the bottom of the can or the neck of the bottle, a piece of cloth is preliminarily laid out. Water is poured from above and, passing through the thickness of the sand, flows into the holes. For greater reliability, filtering through such a filter should be repeated many times. If the water is very polluted, sand should be periodically changed to cleaner.

And if you fill a jar or a plastic bottle with coal, broken into small pieces, taken from a burned-out fire, you will get a more technological charcoal filter. Pure coal is obtained if the wood is burned in a container over high heat. Firewood must be hardwood, as conifers give filtered water a specific taste and smell..

Water purification and filtration, the simplest water filters in the field, in extreme and emergency situations.
knife or just a pointed stick. With this tool, 50-100 cm from the reservoir, you need to dig a deep, not less than half a meter, hole and wait until it is filled with water. Then carefully scoop out the water, wait for the pit to fill up again, and scoop out again. And so on until the water becomes clear and transparent.

Simple charcoal water filter.

And if you dream up, then you can come up with a dozen other ways to purify water in emergency and extreme conditions. For example, to make an elementary filter of adsorption action from a funnel, a piece of cotton or gauze and tablets of activated carbon available in a medicine cabinet, and if not, then birch charcoal. One tablet of activated carbon is able to filter about 0.9-1 liters of water with a cleaning efficiency of up to 85-90%, then the productivity drops sharply and the tablet needs to be changed.

Thus, it is quite possible to calculate the total resource of such a filter. Pay attention to the following, the old carbon filter does not start to clean, and filtered water becomes worse than the original one to pollute the water. This is due to the fact that previously accumulated dirt begins to be washed out of the sorbent.

Regardless of the filtration method used, it is imperative to boil water after this for 10 minutes. Then let it stand for at least 30 minutes and carefully drain clean water without agitating the sediment..

Water purification and filtration, coagulant Hyacinth.

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