Weapon sighting is a necessary event for each owner. This process allows you to identify the main factors affecting the effectiveness of shooting and significantly improve it. However, in order to thoroughly examine the available weapons, it is important to know all the features of the shooting.
- Why do you need to shoot weapons
- 2Featuring features
- 2.1 Selecting position and distance
- 2.2 Target selection
- 3 Basic quality parameters of zeroing
- 3.1 Sharpness
- 3.2 Fight accuracy
- 3.3Permanence of battle
- 3.4 Scatter Fractions
- 3.5The thickening of shot scree to the center
- 4Features and shooting rules
- 4.1Sight rifle with telescopic sight
- 4.2Without optical sight
- 5What ammo is used and how to determine their quality
Why do you need to shoot weapons
The weapons assembled and released from the factory are already fully operational. However, in different situations, as well as in the hands of different people, the accuracy of shooting, like many other parameters, will differ significantly.
In order to study all the features of a weapon, the owner must necessarily make his shooting “by himself”. This process allows you to learn how to choose the optimal distance to the target, for its destruction. In this case, the owner, before the active use of the product, determines how the weapon behaves in certain conditions.
A firearm is considered to be adjusted when its owner has achieved a complete coincidence of the line for aiming with the control point of contact at a certain distance.
Features of shooting
For the proper conduct of the adjustment, the following parameters are of great importance:
- The position and distance from which the shot is made;
- Target selection.
It is important to know that for different types of firearms, the distance for the shooting should be different.
Choice of position and distance
All weapons, according to their structure, are divided into the following types:
- Smoothbore. These include hunting rifles and shotguns, as well as certain types of rifles and pistols. Such products are designed for a distance to the target of no more than 100 meters. Therefore, in order to find out how the weapon will behave when attempting to hit a target at close range, the shooting is done at a distance of 35 meters. The behavior of the product when firing at long distances is studied according to the results of shots made from 60 meters from the target. The maximum distance for zeroing, then 100 meters.
- Threaded. The product design is designed to hit targets from a long distance greater than 100 meters. Therefore, the adjustment is made at a distance of 100, 150 m 200 meters from the end of the barrel of the weapon and to the intended target.
When equipping a weapon with an optical sight, the distance for shooting may increase significantly.
A separate category is a traumatic weapon, mainly used for the purpose of self-defense. When tested, the target is set 5-8 meters from the trunk of the product.
For most types of weapons, the position of the gunner is optimal for shooting and operation. Shooting in the supine position is recommended from long-barreled products, equipped with a sight.
For the convenience of determining the quality of zeroing, a large paper target is usually used. Its size is 1×1 m. The target itself consists of several circles of different diameters inscribed into each other. The centers of each of these circles are at one point. At the same time, the central circle, or apple, has a diameter of 20 cm. It is completely painted in black.
In the process of shooting a bullet or a shot pierce the target, leaving neat holes in it. After shooting, an analysis of the main indicators of the quality of shooting is carried out.
If you need to adjust a hunting rifle, then the device owner must know the sharpness of his battle. For this, a wide board is installed behind the paper target, preferably made of pine wood. In this case, the very target can be depicted on the board.
For shooting guns, from the barrel of which fly solid cartridges, a single target can be used for several shots. When working with a shot, a new target will be required for each shot to correctly evaluate all the characteristics of the gun.
Basic quality parameters for zeroing
In the process of shooting any weapon, its owner can determine the characteristics of the main parameters:
- The sharpness of the battle;
- Accuracy of shot;
- Persistence of battle;
- Scatter shot;
- Thickening shot fragments in the central point of the shot.
The knowledge and analysis of all these indicators allows the owner to make the most accurate and effective shots with the further use of the adjusted weapon.
The sharpness of the battle is determined by the penetrating power of the cartridge or shot when the target is hit. Carrying out the shooting of weapons with the same type of ammunition at different distances allows you to determine the optimal distance from the target for its destruction. In other words, the study of this property helps to know at what distance the hunter should be from the target during a shot so that the bullet reaches the maximum depth possible.
The parameter is very important, because in the process of hunting it is often not enough to simply fall into an animal or bird. The bullet should not only penetrate the skin, but also get to the vital organs. Otherwise, the prey will go, and the ammunition will be wasted.
At a great distance, the speed of the munition, and at the same time the sharpness of the battle, decreases. In this case, even hitting a target, she can get off with a slight wound and escape.
This indicator depends on a large number of factors:
- Powder charge power in ammunition;
- Weight of pellets in the cartridge;
- Type of gun barrel.
The sharpness of the battle is considered low in the case when as a result of a shot from a distance of 35 m from the edge of the barrel of the weapon, the ammunition went to the target to a depth of less than 2 of its diameter. Sharpness is considered permissible, at which the fired projectile entered the target to a depth greater than 3 of its diameter.
The accuracy of the fight
During the shooting of a weapon with a shot, after a shot from the barrel, it is not a single cartridge that moves, but a large number of small pellets. When firing from a distance of more than 30-35 m, not all of the shot particles fall into the target with a size of 7.5 x 7.5 cm. The percentage of hit the target against all existing pellets is an indicator of accuracy of fire.
To determine this parameter in the process of zeroing, on the target, it is necessary to draw a circle of 7.5 cm in radius with a center point in the middle of the apple. And after the shot, the holes from the pellets hit the circumference are counted.
A high accuracy rate is a target hit of 75% of a fraction from an ammunition from a distance of 35 m. Such cartridges can be used for long-range shooting. For hitting targets at close range, it is worth using ammunition with accuracy of 50-60%. They create a large fraction cloud, and allow you to hit the target, even if at the time of the shot she has time to move away a bit.
Persistence of battle
This parameter allows you to pre-evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of shots. For the analysis of this indicator during the shooting a few shots are made. Afterwards, the owner compares how much the results of accuracy, accuracy, thickening and scree of the first shot differ from the subsequent ones.
High constancy of the battle is determined in the case when the difference between the results obtained is no more than 10%. Insufficient or poor consistency of the battle is established with more than 30% difference in the results of successive shots.
The scatter of the fraction indicates the distance between the pellets emerging from the barrel of the weapon, when they hit the target. Normally, an increased density of the shot is allowed in the center of the formed cloud when it hits the target.
High-quality ammunition and weapons, ideally, should provide a uniform scree fraction, both at a short and at an average and long distance from the target.
Thickening shotgun to the center
This indicator is important for owners of big game hunters. The large density of the fraction in the center increases the chances of an instant defeat of a fixed target at a distance of 35-40 m from the weapon.
The large fraction thickening at a distance of 35 m indicates the possibility of using ammunition for firing at a much longer range.
Features and rules of shooting
Hunting weapons can be adjusted in two ways:
- Conventional live ammunition. When choosing ammunition for shooting, each owner himself determines the best options for ammunition for themselves. In this case, the owner of the weapon can freely experiment with the amount of the fraction in the projectile, as well as the power of the powder charge. In this case, the most suitable cartridges are those in which the shot fraction relates to the weight of the weapon as 1: 100. The charge of gunpowder is usually related to the mass of the fraction as 1:16.
- Cold adjustment. They are made by special cartridges with laser designators or universal ammunition, which are easily adjusted to any caliber of weapons.
Despite the fact that cold shooting has a lot of advantages, it only allows you to point out the features of the weapon. However, this type of zeroing does not allow to study the behavior of the gun when using various ammunition. Because most often the shooting is made of live ammunition.
The owner of the gun is extremely important to know where you can shoot your gun. Usually this procedure is carried out in special shooting galleries or specially designated shooting ranges. Shooting in the wrong place entails punishment from a fine to criminal liability.
Hunting rifle can be shot in separate hunting grounds, while having a special permit of the state sample.
Rifle with a telescopic sight
To know how to properly shoot from a rifled rifle equipped with a telescopic sight, it is important to understand that the presence of a support under the weapon plays a significant role in the performance. The adjustment can be made both from a prone position and reclining, and standing.
Support for the rifle can serve as a special stand for the forearm, or available materials and tools:
- Various bipods;
- Specialized stops for high-precision shooting.
You can also use the hood of your own car, a fence and any suitable construction as a support.
Without optical sight
Weapons without optics can also be shot from any position. However, most often this process occurs from a standing position. At the same time for fixing the carbine or the barrel of the product can be used as a special vise, and improvised means.
For correctness and accuracy of the shooting, it is important that the support firmly fix the weapon. But at the same time, the support should not be too soft or hard.
What cartridges are used and how to determine their quality
The main condition for selecting ammunition for firing is that the ammunition caliber corresponds to the nominal cartridge size for the weapon used. The type of projectile and its power are selected individually, according to the needs of the owner of the firearm. In this case, the selection is often done precisely in the process of zeroing. This method is called the selection of the cartridge. However, to make it right, it is not enough to carry out one shot of each type of ammunition. Shooting should be done on 5-6 volleys each type of cartridge from the same distance. After that, the effectiveness of each type of ammunition is evaluated.
Zeroing can be done with special cheap gross ammunition. However, this is acceptable if they will be used in the future.
When choosing a cartridge, it is important to remember that the heavy cartridges will always swing the weapon slightly upwards. And after their use, light cartridges will noticeably go down from the intended point of impact.