When the injury does not come alone. Polytrauma: diagnosis, first aid

We consider sporadic injuries – fractures, dislocations, injuries and head injuries. But sometimes situations happen that are more terrible than “slipped, fell, lost consciousness, regained consciousness, gypsum”. I’m talking about road accidents, I’m talking about accidents, It becomes a pathway for the patient to receive a diagnosis and definitions under the modest name polytrauma.

Polytrauma

Polytrauma – a collective definition of the following types of damage:

  • Multiple injury – for multiple example, multiple bone fractures.
  • Combined injury – simultaneous damage to various systems, such as the spine.
  • This is a fracture of injury.

It is a very high mortality rate. This can be a problem.

Multiple injury

They can also be open and closed, localized in limbs. In the clinical picture, traumatic shock and significant blood loss are pronounced. It can be used for small and closed ones. To identify all injuries and skeletal fractures is required.

First Aid:

The patient is pulse, pressure, consciousness; if necessary, stops external bleeding, sterile bandage; Intravenously injects 2 ml of 1% prodol, then connect with the blood substitutes, well, or with saline. On the limbs before loading into the ambulance car superimposed transport tires. As soon as possible, the patient is taken for examination and treatment. Patients with open fractures are preparing for emergency surgery in parallel with resuscitation. In the future, either the hardware methods of fixation of bone fragments (Illizarov apparatus, for example), or osteosynthesis are used. Sometimes it is necessary to use both techniques.

Combined tRavma

Combined injury has several features:

  • it’s impossible to sum up “simple” injuries, their interaction should not be seen exponentially;
  • the most painful injuries can “obscure” the main ones, which may require immediate surgical intervention;
  • overlapping, makes it difficult to diagnose (for example, head injury and spleen rupture, it doesn’t hurt).

First aid: same as for multiple fractures.

It is a condition of the patient.

There is a possibility of a rupture of the pleural cavity with bone fragments. Then the lung “collapses”, the pleural cavity is filled with blood vessels. In this case, it is necessary to make a punishment for the air. In parallel, fix bone fragments.

Combined injury

Well, the first thing that comes to mind is the explosion of the boiler. It is a thermal burn, it is a thermal burn, it is a thermal burn, it is a bruise from the wind. . Very much it turns out.

80% are accompanied by traumatic shock.

First aid

Here, you can use the following methods: anti-shock therapy, intravenous infusion of blood substitutes, stop bleeding, apply sterile dressings, transport immobilization.

In the medical institution, it is a process of study. In severe injuries, it is possible to observe the “Rule Three-K”: a catheter into a vein, a catheter into a bladder, catheterization of the respiratory tract.
In the case of a combination of thermal burns and limb and fracture, apply hardware fixation methods.

Specialized medical facility is important. From this, which means that your life depends. Be attentive and collected.

And bless you!

The medicine

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