The process of smoking meat and fish is to process the products with smoke, which dries and soaks the meat and fish with new flavors and substances. A simple smokehouse can be made outdoors in camping conditions from various improvised materials.
A simple smokehouse for smoking meat and fish, types of field smokehouses, a method of installing a smokehouse in nature in field conditions.
Two important rules for the construction of any smokehouse: even the simplest smokehouse should be airtight and should be spacious enough. If the tightness is broken, then the chips and other raw materials for ignition will instantly burn out, which means that the meat will not be smoked properly and a product will be cooked in smoke. A large smokehouse is necessary so that pieces of meat or whole carcasses are suspended high enough above the bottom, where sawdust smolders.
Otherwise, the product will be very fried and dried out from below, and the upper part will remain half-baked. In addition, during the smoking of salted or pickled game a lot of moisture is released, therefore, in a limited space and at high temperature, the meat will be steamed, not smoked.
Simple smokehouse from a bucket or iron box, device and features of smoking.
One of the easiest smokehouse options in nature is a non-galvanized bucket with a lid. Before use, the bucket must be thoroughly calcined. A prerequisite – the lid must be well fitted and tightly close the bucket. You can also use a stainless steel box with a lid. Inside such a box or bucket you need to place a grill at a height of 3-4 cm above the bottom.
You can make several such gratings by placing them one above the other, then during smoking the gratings can be rearranged from time to time from top to bottom. The raw materials for ignition in this case are laid to the bottom. This simple smokehouse is well suited for processing small pieces of meat. For smoke formation, 2-3 handfuls of shavings or sawdust will be sufficient. Put the product prepared for smoking on the grates, then the box or bucket should be tightly covered with a lid, leaving small slots for smoke, and set on the coals.
cover the smokehouse with a piece of tarpaulin or other heavy cloth. The tarpaulin should be at a height of 10 cm above the food. To exit the soot and the flow of oxygen that supports the smoldering coals, you need to leave a small gap.
Simple smokehouse in the form of an oven, device and features of smoking.
To smoke a large carcass of game, you need to build a bigger smokehouse, in the form of an oven. It can be done in field conditions, and in a suburban or personal plot. To do this, dig an inclined hole about 2 meters deep in dense soil, preferably clay. It should have two exits: one must lead to the surface of the earth, the other is made from the side, where the bonfire will be located. On the surface of the earth above the recess, a so-called grate is arranged – a device for holding a flame. It is made of metal or juniper rods, and not very large stones are laid on top in 1-2 rows. A volume pipe is installed above the grate, in which game will be smoked.
The pipe is best made from turf, stones or use a barrel without a bottom. If there is a metal barrel – fine. The barrel lid should close tightly. Inside the pipe, a grill, insertion grid or rods are installed, on which the meat is suspended. The mesh can be made independently from annealed steel wire with a diameter of 4-6 mm. If several pieces of meat are suspended in a pipe, they must be placed at a certain distance from each other so that the meat is smoked evenly from all sides. When everything is prepared, the pipe is closed with a lid or piece of tarpaulin. From time to time, the lid or piece of tarpaulin can be slightly opened or, conversely, closed more tightly to control the concentration of smoke and the temperature inside the pipe.
Simple smokehouse from a metal barrel without a bottom, device and features of smoking.
Another type of smokehouse is a metal barrel without a bottom. First you need to dig a groove in the direction of the wind. As a rule, in a particular area, the wind constantly blows in one direction. The groove should have steep walls, a depth of 20–25 cm and a length of 7–10 meters. From above it must be covered with a board or a croaker, and on top of the board pour earth or firmly lay the sod. The result is a good underground pipe. An iron barrel without a bottom is installed at its exit.
The bottom of the barrel must be dug and the earth well tamped. Instead of a cover, it is better to use a shield made of boards with slots through which smoke will escape. In such a smoking compartment, a grate or net is then reinforced. From the other end of the underground pipe, a firebox is arranged, where they will make a fire. To do this, dig a hole in the ground with a depth of 50-60 cm and a length of about 1 meter. You can make steps in front of the firebox to make it easier to approach. The edges of the furnace must be leveled with the ground under the pipe, and on top covered with a lid, metal or wooden. Smokehouse for cold meat processing is ready.
Simple smokehouse with a plastic top, device and features of smoking.
In camping conditions, smokehouses with a plastic booth are often used. As in other versions, at first in a steep bank they dig a hole with a depth of 25-30 cm, a fire is made at its bottom. From the bottom of the recess in the ground, lay a groove (pit) 2-3 meters long, which will serve as a chimney. A dug groove must be covered with branches and sprinkled with small stones and earth. At the exit, a polyethylene booth is installed, in which the meat will be smoked. Such a booth is constructed of polyethylene stretched over rods..
Its size can be any, depending on the volume of raw materials prepared for smoking. The average size of the wooden frame is 1 x 1 x 1.7 meters. To exit the smoke and access oxygen in the upper part of the booth you need to make a small hole. Pieces of meat or game carcasses intended for smoking should be hung upright so that the fat released during smoking does not flow out so abundantly. The average temperature of the smoke in the booth should be an average of 40 degrees, not higher. It is possible to regulate the process of smoke formation using the damper, which should close the exit from the groove.
Simple smokehouse on a wooden frame, device and features of smoking.
You can make a very simple smokehouse by building a plastic booth directly on the surface of the earth. First, a wooden frame is made, a cross-shaped ceiling is built inside, on which the game will be located. On the ground, right under the ceiling, you need to pour coals in an even layer, on top – juniper branches, sawdust, wood chips, grass, etc..
Then the frame is covered with plastic wrap. This film can always be removed to take a break in smoking, and then pull it back just as quickly. The edges of the film can be fixed with stones. To extract, you need to leave small gaps. A break during smoking is necessary for the meat to dry and weather, otherwise an excessive amount of moisture accumulating under the film will spoil the smoked product and make it more likely cooked than smoked.
Semi-stationary smokehouse in the field, device and features of smoking.
If, for example, one and the same place is often chosen for hunting, a smokehouse can be built for longer use. Dymokur (a chamber where coals smolder and smoke is formed) is best made from a sheet of roofing iron. This sheet needs to be bent U-shaped so that both the ceiling and the walls of the chimney smoke are obtained. The rear wall of the chamber with a hole for the chimney and the front wall, with which you can adjust the draft of smoke, must be made of another sheet of iron. Already burnt coals are placed in the chimney smoke, and sawdust and chips are poured on top. It is better to cover the cracks of this design with clay so that it is airtight. Such smoke smoke for greater reliability can be buried in the ground at half height. The chimney is made of corrugated pipes with a diameter of 20 cm, which can be purchased at a store or in the market. They are very light, their length in a compressed state does not exceed 1 meter, and during operation is 3 meters.
Each time they can be taken with them on a hunt and brought back. A smokehouse will require two such pipes. To extend their service life, pipes should be removed and smoked after smoking. Devices for connecting the tube to the smoke chimney, and then to the smoking chamber can be made of roofing iron or similar material in advance. Thanks to such pipes, it will be easy to maintain the desired temperature of the smoke by adjusting their length. The smoking chamber itself can be made on the basis of the same wooden frame. Instead of polyethylene in this case, you can use a dense non-woven material – spunbond. The chimney must be connected to the smoke chamber below. At the exit to the chamber, it must be closed with a metal grill so that the smoke spreads evenly inside. On the opposite side of the chamber, a small cut should be made in the fabric for traction. Crossed poles are installed inside, which are attached to the frame. Smoke products are hung on them..
General rules for the construction of a simple smokehouse in the field, features of the smokehouse in cold or winter season.
When constructing a smokehouse, you need to focus on the amount of raw materials that you plan to process. For smoking 50 kg of game requires at least 1 m3, and in such a smokehouse products can be placed in only one tier. If there is more raw material, a high smokehouse will be required, in which several tiers can be installed with a distance between them of 50–70 cm. The roof of the smokehouse should be installed 25-30 cm higher than the last tier.
For smoking in the winter season, the walls of the smokehouse should be additionally insulated so that it is possible to maintain an even temperature inside during the entire smoking process. Otherwise, the meat will remain half-baked. For winter smoking, you need to install a false roof in a smoking chamber from a single sheet of iron. At the edges of such a roof, grooves must be made with an exit to the outside to drain moisture condensing inside the chamber. In winter, the amount of moisture is always higher due to a sharp temperature difference inside the chamber and outside.
Based on materials from the book “Fishing and Hunting Cuisine. Bowler, bonfire and night sky “.