After the preparation of the route of movement on the map is completed, the speedometer of the machine is taken at the starting point and signed on the map at the first (starting) point. Then translate the distance to each reference point in the speedometer of the machine by adding their values to the initial reading of the speedometer. And sign them at the corresponding points.
Actions on the road while maintaining the driving route on cars on the map, restoring orientation when leaving the driving route.
Before starting the movement, they carefully look at the route section along the map to the first reference point. They remember the mark of the road, as well as the main local objects located along it and sharply expressed relief forms. While driving, observe the terrain. They identify local objects and landforms previously seen on the map and mentally record their progress along the route.
On the way, the map is oriented, usually along the road. At each turn of the road, the map is rotated to the appropriate angle. And when driving off-road – in local subjects. The map must be consulted when approaching the next reference point. After making sure that his identification is correct, they carefully study the route to the next landmark and continue to observe the terrain.
If an object is found on the terrain that is not shown on the map or unnoticed earlier when studying the route of movement on the map, you must again carefully examine the corresponding section of the map. And according to the surrounding local objects and landforms, as well as the characteristics of the object (for example, new buildings or embankments that have not yet been overgrown with grass), you should make sure that it is new and not shown on the map.
When approaching the reference point at the turn of the driving route, you should promptly (200-500 meters) give the driver a reference point and indicate the direction of further movement. For example: “On the outskirts of the village, turn left onto a dirt road”.
Landmarks should be indicated to the driver even when their identification is difficult. In these cases, it is useful to involve other vehicle crew members for monitoring the terrain. At each landmark, the distance covered is read by the sospidometer and compared with the map data. If the first reference deviation is more than 5%, then calculate the correction for 1 km of the path. And in the future, take it into account when determining the distances by the speedometer.
When leaving the settlement and at the fork in the road, if the number of roads on the terrain and on the map does not match, and if it was not possible to reliably determine the desired road directly from the map, the direction of the further route of movement is established using a compass along the magnetic distance of the road, determined by the map. It is also recommended that you use a compass to check the direction when driving in a forest on a poorly-ridden road.
Restoring orientation when leaving a driving route.
Descent from the route of movement and loss of orientation are most likely with careless orientation, when they cease to continuously monitor progress along the route. A sharp mismatch of the terrain map can also lead to a departure from the route.
In case of loss of orientation, it is necessary to indicate the probable location on the map by the distance traveled from the last, reliably identified reference point and the direction of the last section of the path. In this case, all the constructions on the map can be done in the simplest way. The compass is applied to the landmark and the desired angle is laid off along the limb. Then, in this direction, the desired distance is laid.
Once a probable location has been determined, the surrounding local objects should be examined. Especially their location on the relief. Identify them on the map and clarify their location. If this succeeds, you need to plan an exit on the route and continue driving. If it was not possible to restore the orientation, it is advisable to return along the track of your car to the last, well-recognized reference point and from here, having checked the direction of the further path, continue moving along the route.
In some cases, when there are linear landmarks (railways, highways, power lines, rivers, etc.) that run perpendicular to the general direction of the route, the movement can continue in the same direction until reaching the linear landmark. Easily identifiable on the map. Here you should clarify your location and plan the exit to the route or directly to the required area.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.