In the event of a ship accident, threatening him with death, the crew and passengers take the place of the rescue craft in accordance with the instructions of the captain. When it is not possible to place themselves in boats and rafts directly on the deck, those in distress descend overboard with the help of special devices (storm ramps, cables with musings, etc.). In critical situations, you have to jump into the water from the side of the ship.
Actions when leaving the vessel in the event of an accident, landing on life-saving appliances, organization of a shift, use of a floating anchor.
If you are wearing an inflatable rescue chest, you can jump with it even from a high side. You should jump with your feet down, clutching the inflated bib with your hands and pressing it to your chest. These recommendations must be followed strictly, otherwise at the moment of entry into the water a person will experience a strong jerk that can cause him damage, especially in cases where the side height is significant.
Before jumping into the water, you need to take a deep breath and hold your breath, so that when immersed in water with your head you do not have to take an involuntary breath before it emerges to the surface. When boarding rescue equipment launched into the water, it is necessary to follow the sequence, keeping the interval between descending to avoid injuries.
Rescue craft filled with people must immediately move away from the sinking vessel to a distance of at least 200 meters. But at the same time, disaster victims should carefully examine the surrounding water area in order to timely detect and provide assistance to people who, by chance, find themselves in the water. Those in distress need to know that the SOS signal sent by the emergency vessel will take all measures to save them. Therefore, it is recommended that survivors stay as close to the disaster site as possible.
Only in the case of a very quick loss of the ship, when there is no certainty that the coordinates of the place of its flooding are broadcast, it is necessary to use the possibility of moving the rescue vehicle towards the nearest shore.
In order for collective rescue equipment to be kept nearby, they are fastened together with the help of halyards 15–20 meters long. After that, the commander conducts a number of urgent events. Arranges first aid for the injured, checks to see if all the victims are on board the rescue craft, and in the absence of anyone, searches.
Features of the stress state of victims after a ship accident.
According to reports, by no means all who find themselves in an emergency are capable of activity and appropriate action. 50–75% of the victims are in a state of stupor and psychological or physiological stress, while remaining a relatively calm, but little active part of the team. In 12–25%, hysterical reactions are observed, which are manifested in strong excitement, erratic actions, or, conversely, inhibition, depression, indifference to what is happening, complete inability to act. And only 12–25% retain their composure, quickly assess the situation, act decisively and reasonably.
It is on this active part of the victims that, at the first moment after salvation, it is necessary to assign responsibilities to assist those in need and to carry out other urgent operations.
Emotional stress is a temporary condition, and after some time, the vast majority of people calm down, adapt to new conditions of existence. After that, they should be connected to activities to preserve life and health for themselves and others..
Rescue of people caught in the water after a ship accident.
If people are found on the water, then all measures must be taken immediately to take them on board the rescue vehicle. Without waiting for the boat or raft to come close to the floating people, you need to throw them a life-saving end.
In those cases when rescue equipment cannot come to a person in the water for some reason or the victim is swooning or powerless, someone should go down from the craft and swim to it. When lifting exhausted people out of the water or into a boat, it is necessary to turn the victim in the water with his back to the board, take under his armpits, clasping his chest, and pull into the boat.
Organization of one-man management in a rescue vehicle.
From the moment of landing on a life raft or a boat, all the victims of the disaster become a single crew and obey the commander. He is the person responsible for the moral and physical condition of the people in the rescue vehicle!
If there are no persons in command of the vessel on the boat or raft, then a qualified foreman shall assume the responsibilities of a senior. In the case when none of the survivors has special training, the commander is chosen. All his orders are carried out implicitly..
The commander monitors the performance of all his duties, strictly controls the consumption of water, food, medicine, signaling, does not allow panic, quarrels, organizes the provision of care and patient care.
Organization of a watch on a rescue vehicle after a ship wreck.
On life-saving appliances, a round-the-clock shift is installed with a change every 2 hours. The duties of the watchman include the observation of the horizon and the air. Timely notification of the commander about changes in weather conditions, the appearance of airplanes and ships. In addition, the watchman monitors the safety of water and food..
Serviceability monitoring of life-saving appliances, repair of damage to lifeboat and raft.
The life of the victims of the disaster largely depends on the serviceability of rescue equipment. A boat leak can be eliminated by caulking the crevice with a rag or cloth from the clothing of the fleeing. If a snap snap break occurs, the sail must be removed immediately and the damage repaired..
If the cables are cut off, delayed actions can damage the mast. In the event that it does occur, it is necessary to lay a tire out of the oars on the mast and fasten it tightly with a wire rope or lines.
Violation of the integrity of the chambers of an inflatable liferaft will lead to a gas leak and a decrease in survivability. Damage can occur as a result of puncture of the shell with sharp objects floating in the water, various piercing and cutting objects (knives, hooks, etc.) available to the survivors.
The holes in the chamber should be plugged with a stopper, clamped with a metal plug, and sealed with a rubber patch. The raft repair kit has all the material necessary for this. It should be remembered that after applying the patch you can’t tightly inflate the raft during the day.
Due to the temperature difference at night and daytime, the gas pressure in the chambers can fluctuate significantly. When the pressure rises, some of the gas may escape through the safety valves. You can pump the chamber with a pump or blow it with your mouth.
Use of a floating anchor and action when turning a rescue vehicle.
During severe excitement, in order to deploy the boat with its nose against the wave, and to give the raft more stability and slow down the drift, a floating anchor is lowered overboard. It was found that the raft drifts in the wind much faster if you raise a floating anchor. For example, with a wind of 5 points, it drifts with the anchor lowered at a speed of 0.5–1 knots / h, and without it – 1-2 knots / h.
If the raft is accidentally turned over in order to give it a normal position, a halyard mounted on the opposite side is thrown over the bottom and pulled onto itself. If there is no suitable halyard, the victim must climb to the bottom of the slot, take his hands overboard, and then, falling into the water, knock him over. The raft can be flipped to its normal position and with two handles on the bottom.
Based on the book Encyclopedia of Survival at Sea.