Acute intestinal obstruction, causes, symptoms, first emergency medical care for acute intestinal obstruction.

Acute intestinal obstruction is a violation of the movement of contents through the intestines. Acute intestinal obstruction develops due to blockage of the intestinal lumen or disruption of the muscles of the intestines and abdomen. Bowel obstruction can be mechanical and dynamic (spastic and atonic). 

Acute intestinal obstruction, causes, symptoms, first emergency medical care for acute intestinal obstruction.

Spastic acute intestinal obstruction is a fairly rare occurrence. The basis of such a pathology is a persistent spasm of various parts of the intestine. The cause of this condition may be intestinal parasites, kidney disease, poisoning with salts of heavy metals, the presence of a foreign body in the intestine, the consumption of roughage in large quantities.


One of the main signs of intestinal obstruction is stool and gas retention. It should be noted that with obstruction of the upper intestine, feces and gases can be released, but there is no relief. Pallor of the skin is noted, then cyanosis increases, facial features are sharpened. The body temperature does not rise for a long time..

When probing, the abdominal wall initially remains soft, and then muscle tension is determined, which indicates the development of peritonitis. One of the signs of obstruction of the lower intestine (with inversion or swelling of the colon) is a small amount of fluid that can hold the intestines when setting an enema.

First aid for acute intestinal obstruction.

The patient must be urgently hospitalized in the surgical department of the hospital. The condition temporarily improves if you insert a probe and rinse your stomach. With the introduction of painkillers (solutions of metamizole sodium, tramadol), the condition temporarily improves, but this lubricates the overall picture of the disease. The introduction of antispasmodics not only complicates the diagnosis, but can also worsen the condition.

In the hospital, an examination is performed to clarify the diagnosis. At the same time carry out emergency treatment. With mechanical intestinal obstruction, its causes are quickly eliminated. They conduct treatment aimed at combating shock and poisoning. Spastic intestinal obstruction is treated without resorting to surgery. Spasmolytic agents are administered and local anesthesia (perinephric block) is performed. With atonic intestinal obstruction, normalization of water-salt metabolism is necessary.

Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.
Kashin S.P..

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