The most common, old, proven and at the same time cheap, are Adrianov’s compass and AK’s more advanced artillery compass.
Adrianov’s compass and AK artillery compass, methods of working with them, determining the direction on the ground at a given azimuth, measuring the magnetic azimuth.
Adrianov’s compass allows you to measure angles in degrees and divisions of the goniometer. To count the angles is a dial with two scales. Degrees are signed after 15 (graduation point 3 degrees) clockwise. Goniometer divisions – after 5-00 (division price 0-50) counterclockwise.
The countdown on the dial is read using a pointer mounted on the inner wall of the cover of the compass against the front sight. The northern end of the magnetic needle, the reference indicator and division on the limb, corresponding to 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees, are covered with a composition glowing in the dark.
Artillery compass AK, device.
Thanks to some improvements, the AK artillery compass is more convenient to use. His case is rectangular, which allows you to accurately install the AK artillery compass along the line maps and draw directions. Compass cover with a mirror surface allows you to observe the position of the magnetic needle and at the same time sight on the subject.
The magnetic needle more steadily fixes the direction of the magnetic meridian. Its braking is carried out by closing the lid. The division scale of the limb scale is 1-00. Their signatures are given after 5-00 clockwise.
Determining the direction on the terrain according to a given azimuth by the Adrianov compass.
By rotating the compass cover, the pointer is set to a countdown corresponding to the value of the specified azimuth. Then, having released the magnetic needle, turn the compass so that the zero stroke of the dial is aligned with the northern end of the arrow. At the same time, they become a person in the right direction and, raising the compass to about shoulder height, they sight along the slit – front sight line, and in this direction they notice some kind of landmark on the ground. This direction will correspond to the given azimuth..
Determining the direction on the terrain from a given azimuth by the AK artillery compass.
The compass cover is set at an angle of 45 degrees and the rotation of the dial combines the specified countdown with the pointer at the slot of the cover. The AK artillery compass is raised to eye level and, observing the covers in the mirror, turn to align the zero stroke of the limb with the northern end of the arrow. In this position, the compass through the slot sight and notice any landmark. The direction of the landmark will correspond to the specified azimuth.
Measurement of magnetic azimuth by Adrianov’s compass.
Having freed the magnetic needle, turning the compass brings a zero stroke under the north end of the arrow. Without changing the position of the compass, by rotating the ring, the sighting device is directed by the front sight toward the object on which the azimuth is to be measured. The aiming of the front sight on an object is achieved by multiple eyes translation from the sighting device to the object and back.
For this purpose, you should not raise the compass to eye level, as this may cause the arrow to move away from the zero stroke of the dial and the accuracy of azimuth measurement will sharply decrease. Aligning the sight line of the slot – the front sight with the direction to the object, the count is taken from the front sight pointer. This will be the azimuth of the direction to the subject. The average error in azimuth measurement by a Adrianov compass is 2-3 degrees.
Magnetic azimuth measurement by AK artillery compass.
Putting the compass cover at an angle of about 45 degrees, they will endorse the object. Then, without changing the position of the compass, the rotation of the dial brings, observing in the mirror, the zero stroke of the dial to the north end of the magnetic needle and takes the count at the pointer. The average azimuth error of the AK artillery compass is approximately 0-25.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.