Prior to the period of mass use of capkans, dice samolov occupied one of the first places among the samolov used in forest areas for the production of small fur animals: sable, marten, column, polecat, ermine, squirrels.
Airplanes dies, purpose, device, installation, guard and principle of operation, dies for squirrel, sable, marten, ermine, ferret, affection, column, ferret.
Dice samolov were used, as a rule, as stationary samolov, that is, they were made on the spot from improvised material in places of the most probable appearance of the beast, and during the entire life of the die it was not tolerated. The material for the manufacture of dies is mainly wood. In treeless areas, floors and bends are made from ice floes (for ermine mining).
In mountainous areas, stone samolas dies were used for the extraction of squirrels and mainly tarbagan, the floor and oppression of which was made from stone slabs. In some cases, hunters made the floor and oppression from thin-walled boards for easy carrying, and during installation made the oppression heavier with an additional load. The trigger mechanism in all cases was made of wood.
The main disadvantages of the dies include the weak protection of the caught animal from mouse rodents and birds. Advantages are simplicity of manufacture, high structural accuracy and ease of operation.
Airplanes dies for squirrel, sable, marten, device, installation and guard.
The die is made as follows. A piece of log (it is more convenient to choose more upright pieces of wood) 90-100 cm long and 30-40 cm thick is split lengthwise into two unequal parts. The thicker serves as oppression, and the thinner as the floor of the trap. The planes of the split halves trim the logs by ax, eliminating roughness. The convex sides of the tail ends of the yoke and the floor.
Establish a die, resting the tail ends of the floor and oppression in a deep notch on a tree. The front end of the floor is held in horizontal position on a crossbar mounted between two flyers. The installation height of the die depends on the height of the snow cover in the fishing area and is equal to 70-150 cm. At a small angle, they set the number of runs, which makes the animal easier to approach the bait.
Mounting a dice between trees.
To install a die between two trees that are close to each other, the oppression should be 10-15 cm shorter than the floor. The most common guard system used in dies is man. Another way of the trigger mechanism are Zyryan samolov dies. The guard is a thin stick 30-35 cm long. The rear end of the guard is tied up with a piece of rope fixed at the end of the tail of the floor. The free end of the guard is notched.
When guarding the design of the wedge-gatekeepers tied with a rope sim card to the upper crossbar, they abut one end to the lower edge of the yoke, and the other clings to the prong of the guard. If the gatehouse slides off the smooth surface of the yoke, a transverse notch is made on it. Rope Simka keeps oppression in a raised state. The bait is tied to the middle of the guard.
In order to ensure better preservation of the hunted animal, a trough-shaped depression is hollowed out on the lower surface of the yoke, departing from the front edge of the yoke by 4-5 cm. The length of the trough is 30-45 cm, the depth is 2.5-3 cm, and the width is 20-25 cm.
Airplanes dies for ermine, ferret, weasels, column, device, installation and guard.
It is installed directly on the ground or on goats at a height of 40-70 cm, most often near haystacks, logs of firewood, heaps of brushwood. A similar type of construction is also used in fishing for ferrets, weasels, and columns. It is made of chopped along a log 1 meter long, not more than 35 cm thick. Near the die floor, at the front end, two flyers are driven in – a collar 40-45 cm high.
A crossbar is laid in the forks of the flyers, to the middle of which a rope is tied – Simka. A gatehouse is tied to the free end of the SIM card. The length of the rope sim card is 20-25 cm. From above, oppression is superimposed on the floor, the tail end of which is movably fastened to the floor by a persistent peg. The persistent peg also holds the guard, which is a flexible strip extending between the floor and the yoke, with a notch at the front end.
The plate is guarded as follows. Under the raised front of the yoke, a gatehouse is tied to a rope sim card. The upper end of the gatehouse rests on the lower edge of the yoke, and the lower one clings to the notch of the guard, which is in the raised position. Some hunters use chalak as a trigger for an ermine
Wearable dice for ermine.
In such a die, floor and oppression are made of a board. The floor is made in several large sizes. At the front end, the floor has two openings for collar racks. The oppression of the trap requires additional weighting. As a weighting agent use stones, a bag of earth or sand, a log. The alarm of the alarm and the trigger mechanism are given in the description of the stationary ermine die.
The use of a portable trap is more rational with a low number of ermine. The light weight of the structure allows you to move the airplanes, catching a large area with one trap.
Ferret dice on ferret, device, installation and guard.
Unlike the above constructions, the die floor is at the same time a guard. Make a half-watch from a thin board 1-1.5 cm thick and 1 meter long. 3-4 cm from the front edge of the board, drill a hole 0.5 cm deep or make a notch. Set a trap by abutting the floor and bending into a notch by a tree lump.
At a height of 1.5 meters above the trap, a nail is driven in. A strong rope is attached to the nail with a guard-gate at the end, 20-25 cm long. The length of the rope should be such that when guarding the trap, the front edge of the floor is 5-6 cm above the ground. As soon as the animal rises to the half-watch, trying to reach the bait, the half-watch under its weight drops down, and the ferret is pressed down.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..