Alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries were invented back in 1899 by Waldmar Jungner. However, materials for the production of such batteries were more expensive than materials for the production of other types of batteries. Therefore, at that time they did not find wide application.
Alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries, a brief description, application, main advantages and disadvantages.
Only in 1932 a technology was developed for applying the active material of the plates by deposition on a spongy (porous) nickel-coated electrode. And in 1947, work began on the creation of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries, in which the possibility of recombining the gases released during the charge was realized without their removal. The end result of these works was the emergence of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries, used today.
Among rechargeable batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries are still a popular type of batteries used as a power source for various equipment. They “love” a fast charge, a slow discharge to a state of full discharge and recharging with current pulses, while other types of batteries prefer partial discharge and moderate load currents.
Nickel-cadmium batteries are a strong, diligent and silent worker. This is the only type of battery that can operate in the most severe conditions. They are not spoiled by the need to “sit” in the charger for days and be used by chance to perform episodic work.
For nickel-cadmium batteries, full periodic discharge is essential. If it is not done, large crystals are formed on the plates of the elements, significantly reducing their capacity. The so-called “memory effect.” Currently, nickel-cadmium batteries are beginning to give precedence to new types of batteries with higher energy densities and which use less toxic metals and compounds.
When charging (the left side of the formula) and discharging (the right side) of a nickel-cadmium battery, chemical reactions proceed:
Cd + 2NiOOH + 2H2O Cd (OH) 2 + 2Ni (OH) 2.
Advantages of Nickel-Cadmium batteries:
The ability to quickly and easily charge, even after long-term storage.
A large number of charge / discharge cycles. When used correctly, more than 1000 cycles.
Good load capacity and ability to work at low temperatures.
Long service life.
Long shelf life at any charge level.
Easy storage and transportation.
Able to work in a wide temperature range from minus 60 to plus 70 degrees.
Preservation of high capacity at low temperatures.
The most adaptability for work in severe conditions of operation.
Insensitive to rough mechanical and electrical handling (vibration, shock, deep discharges, overcharging and undercharging).
A wide selection of batteries of various designs and capacities.
Disadvantages of nickel-cadmium batteries:
Relatively low energy density compared to new types of batteries.
Nickel-cadmium batteries have a memory effect. Therefore, there is a need for periodic work to eliminate it.
The toxicity of the materials used, which negatively affects the environment. Some countries restrict the use of this type of battery..
Relatively high self-discharge. After storage, a charge cycle is required..
Based on the book Battery.