Ambassador of meat, lard, poultry and fish before smoking, this is one of the mandatory operations in the manufacture of smoked meats. The shelf life of future delicacies directly depends on compliance with salting technology. All existing salting methods can be divided into four conditional groups: dry salting, wet salting in brine, mixed or combined salting, salting by injection of brine with a syringe.
Ambassador of meat, lard, poultry and fish before smoking, dry and wet ambassador in brine, mixed or combined ambassador.
When preparing meat, lard, poultry and fish for smoking, preference is traditionally given to the first three methods. For dry salting, only edible table salt or rock salt of medium grinding is used exclusively. Fine salt is not suitable for these purposes, since it forms a dense crust on the surface of the meat, which slowly dissolves, as a result of which only the outer layer of the product is salted. Without penetrating the formation, salt, accordingly, cannot destroy the microorganisms living there and prevent the process of decay.
and spices. They are suitable for salting meat and poultry, as well as for fish and seafood. Typically, peas of allspice or black pepper (or ground pepper), bay leaf, peeled garlic cloves are added to the mixture.
For spicy salting also put rosemary, ginger, coriander, cumin, marjoram, cloves, juniper berries, calamus root. Spices are pre-crushed and added to the curing mixture, or they are sprinkled with the bottom of the dishes for salting and salted products, or they are simultaneously used in the curing mixture, and in general. They should be used in very moderate quantities so that the fragrant bouquet does not drown the taste of the product itself.
Containers and containers for dry and wet salting of meat, lard, poultry and fish.
The best containers for salting meat, lard and fish are oak and beech barrels, but wooden containers made of aspen, plane tree and hornbeam are also suitable. The main requirement is tightness, durability and cleanliness. For salting small volumes of raw materials, large pans, tanks or buckets made of stainless steel, food-grade plastic or enameled can be adapted. Copper, iron and galvanized containers for salting and pickling are not suitable. Of course, before salting, any containers or utensils should be well cleaned and scalded with boiling water and soda, then rinsed with cold water and dried.
Usually when salting meat, poultry and fish, oppression is used. It can be almost any heavy object: a cleanly washed granite stone, a three-liter jar or a pan filled with water, a kettlebell. The load is installed either on a wooden circle or on a flat ceramic plate. It is desirable that the circle was with holes or slightly less than the diameter of pickling dishes to ensure the outflow of excess brine and juice released from the meat. In the room where salting will occur, the air temperature should not exceed plus 5–7 degrees.
Dry salted meat, lard, poultry and fish before smoking.
Dry ambassador is the easiest way, so most housewives prefer to use it. Dry salting involves rubbing all products with salt or a dry salting mixture, after which they are laid in layers in a container. Each layer is also sprinkled with a curing mixture. The denser the laying – the better the salting will be. For this, oppression is usually put on top of raw materials. This method provides good preservation of raw materials, but has several disadvantages. Products are salty unevenly, lose a lot of moisture and become too dry and harsh. Therefore, this method is more appropriate to use for the treatment of fat, fatty meat and fish.
Wet salted meat, lard, poultry and fish before smoking, brine concentration.
Salting meat, poultry, or fish in brine is called wet salting. You can use different brine. Simple (only salt and water) and complex (nitrate, ascorbic acid, sugar, spices). It is important to choose quality water. Need purified drinking water. Water from the tap must be boiled, quality proven spring and artesian water can be used without pre-treatment. In simple brine, it is customary to withstand fatty meat and lard. Complex brine can be used to grease various workpieces.
With wet salting, pieces of meat or carcasses of fish are placed in a container, poured with brine, the temperature of which should be in the range of 2–4 degrees, and oppression is established from above, which ensures full coverage of the raw material with liquid. Usually, the process of wet salting lasts from 2 to 6 weeks or more, depending on the thickness of the pieces, the temperature in the room, the saturation of the brine and the desired degree of salting. However, the duration of exposure of the raw materials in the brine should be no less than that required for the complete penetration of salt into the entire thickness of meat or fish.
Salted, normal and strong brines, salt concentration.
The advantage of wet salting is the ability to adjust the degree of salting of products, making the brine more or less saturated with salt. Depending on its content, brines can be lightly salted (14–16%), normal (18%), and strong (20% or more). Salted solution gives the meat a delicate taste, ham and juiciness, preserves the natural aroma and taste of the product. However, the brine concentration should not be lower than 14%, otherwise the product will quickly begin to deteriorate. Of course, with such processing, the meat will turn out tastier, but it will not be stored for long. Strong brines give a more stable product, but its taste will be different, less gentle and pleasant.
Mixed ambassador of meat, lard, poultry and fish before smoking.
A mixed or combined ambassador combines dry and wet methods. It is used to obtain corned beef, which is to be stored for a long time, as well as for salting pork and fish for subsequent smoking. The raw material is first sprinkled with salt, as is done with the dry method, and then added to the brine. Nitrate and sugar are usually added to the brine..
First, the pieces rubbed with salt are tightly packed in prepared containers, each layer is poured with salt or a curing mixture. To give the meat a flavor and piquancy, you can add allspice and bay leaf to it: about 11-12 g of each seasoning per 10 kg of meat. Tanks with salted product should stand in a cool place for about 2 weeks. During this time, brine is formed from salt, spices and meat juice. Then oppression is established on meat or fish.
If enough juice has formed, then under pressure it will come out and cover the meat. But more often it turns out to be not enough to completely cover all the pieces, so the capacity has to be added to the top with the prepared brine from water, salt and other ingredients as desired. You can also add pepper and bay leaf to the brine, and for pork, instead of these spices, it is preferable to pour a little sugar into the liquid. Meat or fish remain in the brine for 1-2 weeks or more. The term depends on the desired degree of salting and the size of the pieces..
Based on materials from the book We procure poultry, meat, fish. Smoking, canning, drying, cooking sausages.