Anthropological factors of survival and risk characterize the state of human health, its internal reserves. This also includes psychological preparedness, the will to live, moral-volitional qualities, the manifestation of vigorous activity, on which the prevalence of positive or negative emotions and actions, physical endurance, adaptability to climate conditions, as well as survival skills in autonomous existence will depend.
Natural, material, technical, stressful and environmental factors of survival and risk.
Every person who embarks on a long journey by some form of transport or on foot, subconsciously must be ready for action in a sudden emergency, catastrophic and even extreme situation. The maximum composure and endurance, the ability to instantly gather and focus on the main thing is what will help to save life, and not only your own, with honor to get out of the situation.
from bad weather and predatory animals and subsequent access to housing. In this case, the smallest thing distracts from bad thoughts, hardships and deprivations of the current situation..
Feeling of fear as a factor of survival and risk.
Psychologists believe that survival based only on the biological laws of self-preservation is short-lived. This condition is characterized by rapidly developing mental disorders, hysterical and panic states. But, however, the first thing that comes to a person in a moment of mortal danger is fear. Fear is a natural human feeling. It is caused by both real and apparent danger, the expectation of suffering, death. Fear is a form of a person’s emotional reaction to an extreme situation..
Fear sharply increases from loneliness, when a person who finds himself in a difficult, unusual environment for him remains absolutely alone and a feeling of fear comes from the unknown, incomprehensibility of his position, weakness of spirit, anticipation of an attack by wild animals. There are no people in the world who do not have a sense of fear (this is abnormal when it is absent), since fear is a kind of warning system about danger, and therefore, about the need to take measures to save life.
On the other hand, fear can cause a complete loss of strength, emotional balance and ability to resist the situation. Controlling fear is an opportunity to become aware of a situation and an impending danger and find a way out of an seemingly hopeless situation. Thus, the main thing in a person who finds himself in an extreme situation is his will, desire for life, composure and the ability to overcome the instinct of self-preservation, sometimes leading to the adoption of spontaneous, rash decisions.
If a person conquers fear, then fear becomes an assistant, a kind of catalyst for energy. The brain begins to think better, muscles tighten, eyesight becomes sharper. But it is worth giving in to fear, and he will subordinate all thoughts and actions to himself, will go into horror at what has already happened and the future.
This will destroy a person’s ability to control his actions and sharply reduce the possibility of survival, even in the presence of fire, water and food. Therefore, actions performed for the first time in a catastrophic situation are crucial. The outcome of survival in the most adverse conditions depends on the speed with which a person comes to himself, and the subsequent promptness and correctness of actions..
Environmental and Survival and Risk Factors.
These survival factors include the natural conditions of the disaster area: temperature and humidity, solar radiation, oxygen content in the air, the presence of water, flora and fauna, photoperiodism (polar day and night), disturbances of the Earth’s electromagnetic field. This group also includes various natural disasters that can have a significant, if not dominant, influence on the creation of an extremely dangerous extreme situation..
Logistical factors for survival and risk.
This group combines survival factors that provide protective functions that contribute to normal life in extreme conditions. These include: clothing appropriate for the area and climatic conditions, at least an elementary first-aid kit, matches, water-food supply, alarm equipment, emergency swimming aids, other improvised tools used for various purposes, for example, a raincoat, tarpaulin, parachute, dishes for cooking food, skiing, etc..
But, as a rule, during accidents, catastrophes or natural disasters and extreme situations arising in connection with this, people most often find themselves without emergency rescue equipment, medicines, food, water supply and various equipment and equipment necessary in such cases. Therefore, the basis for survival in any situation from emergency to catastrophic and extreme is strong knowledge in various fields, i.e. the ability to survive.
In addition, this is the ability to navigate the terrain, read footprints, provide first aid, have ideas about edible and poisonous plants, animals, be able to cook them, light a fire and provide reliable shelter from bad weather, give a distress signal correctly, etc. The methods and methods of survival in each geographical and climatic zone are different, therefore there are no universal tips for all occasions..
What is suitable for taiga is not suitable for the jungle or desert, and especially the ocean, and vice versa. But, however, there are general principles and rules of human behavior in emergency and extreme situations. Therefore, it is extremely important for a person who has gathered on a distant or not very journey, expedition, to field training practice, to develop practical survival skills. Very often, deaths occur due to elementary illiteracy associated with the rules of a person’s stay in the natural environment.
Stress and environmental survival and risk factors.
This group includes all those survival factors that arise as a result of human interaction with the environment: all kinds of injuries, poisoning with plant and animal poisons, infection with natural focal diseases, mountain sickness, heat and cold injuries, bites of poisonous animals and insects, parasitic diseases , as well as the so-called survival stressors: pain, cold, heat, overwork.
Being a normal protective reaction of the body, pain occurs with various injuries and wounds. It causes suffering and distracts a person, depriving him of the ability to act. On the other hand, a person who is deprived of pain sensitivity is exposed to even greater danger, since he cannot eliminate the life-threatening consequences of trauma, especially with damage to internal organs. A strong-willed person can not only cope with pain, but is able to forget about it for a while, focusing on the problems of survival.
Dramatically reduces the physical activity of a person and his performance. It has a negative effect on the psyche. It’s impossible to get used to the cold, and therefore the primary task in this case is to protect yourself from it.
Causes significant changes in the body, sometimes in a very short time, since overheating of the body disrupts the work of many organs, weakens the physical and mental state of a person. Especially the heat is dangerous with a lack of drinking water, since, in addition to overheating, dehydration also occurs.
It is a normal signal for a lack of fluid in the body, but if it is impossible to satisfy it, it becomes a serious obstacle to a person’s working capacity, especially in an extreme situation. Unreasonable consumption of water in the heat leads to uncontrollable thirst, and you want to drink the more, the more people drink.
Not as terrible as thirst, because a person can do without food for a long time, while maintaining efficiency and clarity of mind. But with a lack of water, starvation for many days significantly weakens the body and reduces its resistance to cold, pain, stress. Fatigue can be different. Nervous fatigue is recognized by a decrease or loss of sensitivity to light and sound. Along with muscle fatigue, there is fatigue from heat. Despite the fact that fatigue accumulates in the body quickly enough, it can be defeated by training..
Each type of fatigue is a kind of poisoning of the body, but increased excretion of waste leads to its elimination. During work, brought to fatigue, there is no complete combustion of oxygen in the human body, therefore, it is useless to treat fatigue with enhanced nutrition. It should be borne in mind that the excessive thickness of the muscle does not increase its ability to perform great mechanical work for a long time. And we must also remember that there is not a single disease, not a single ailment without prior fatigue.
It occurs with prolonged, and sometimes short-term physical and mental stress and overstrain. It dulls the will, makes a person more compliant with his own weaknesses, and therein lies a latent formidable danger. It prepares a person for a psychological attitude: This work is not urgent, it can be postponed until tomorrow. The consequences of such a decision can be the most serious and irreparable. The correct and uniform distribution of physical activity, normal and timely rest allows you to avoid overwork and quickly restore strength..
In conditions of autonomous existence, when it is impossible to navigate the terrain, find water and get food, a state of despondency arises. This is facilitated by survival factors, a consciousness of loneliness, as well as the absence of any business and a clear goal. You can avoid despondency, which, ultimately, can turn into fear and panic, by taking up shelter, collecting fuel for a fire, searching for edible plants, etc. This will distract from gloomy thoughts and put them into the background. But in this case too, one cannot go too far. The tasks set for themselves must be specific and compulsory..
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.