Artificial respiration and closed heart massage, obvious signs of biological death, resuscitation and the timing of its implementation in assisting in emergency situations.

Previously used artificial respiration (artificial ventilation of the lungs) by the method of bending the victim’s arms and legs is no longer used. There is a more effective method of restoring mouth-to-mouth breathing and mouth-to-nose breathing.. 

Artificial respiration and indoor cardiac massage, obvious signs of biological death, resuscitation and its timing when providing assistance in emergency situations.

Before you start artificial respiration, you need to make sure the upper respiratory tract is affected. For this, the victim’s head is thrown back, since in this position the airways are better opened. To avoid retraction of the tongue, the lower jaw of the victim is advanced.

, which can make breathing and blood circulation difficult. The entire preparatory part must be done very quickly, but carefully and carefully, since the severe, sometimes critical condition of the victim can be worsened even more. After the upper respiratory tract has been cleaned, the victim should be quickly and carefully laid down with his back on a flat flat surface, and arms extended along the body. Then the victim’s head is thrown back. With one hand, pull the lower jaw forward and down, and hold the nose with the fingers of the other hand..

It is necessary to ensure that the victim’s tongue does not sink and does not block the airways. If the tongue is stuck, it is necessary to extend it and hold it with your fingers or pin (you can even sew on) the tip of the tongue to the clothes. The one who provides assistance becomes on either side of the victim. Then he takes a maximum breath and, leaning toward the victim, presses his lips tightly against his open mouth, making a maximum exhalation at this moment, making sure that during the intake of air into the respiratory tract and lungs, the victim’s chest will straighten as much as possible.

After the chest is straightened, it is necessary to take the mouth from the lips and stop squeezing the victim’s nose. At this moment, the air itself should come out of its lungs, simulating an exhalation. Such breaths should be done every 3-4 seconds. Intervals between breaths and the depth of each breath should be the same.

In case of trauma to the tongue, jaw or lips, another method is used for mouth to nose. The methodology for carrying out this method is the same as in the first case, only the victim’s mouth must be tightly closed. Blowing air from the mouth of the resuscitator is carried out in both nostrils of the victim.

If you start doing artificial respiration as quickly as possible after stopping breathing, then it often leads to success. The first independent breath is not always expressed quite clearly and can be noticeable only by a weak rhythmic contraction of the cervical muscles, resembling swallowing movement. After this, the respiratory movements become more pronounced, increase, but can occur at large intervals and are convulsive.

Indoor cardiac massage.

Heart massage is an artificial compression of its cavities, which promotes the pushing of blood into the bloodstream and irritates the nervous apparatus of the heart muscle. As a rule, it is carried out with a sudden stop of cardiac activity (with shock, lightning, falling into an avalanche, etc.). When the victim is in a state of clinical death, his chest becomes more mobile as a result of decreased muscle tone.

And since the heart is located between the sternum and the spine, when you press the chest, it can be squeezed so that the blood from its cavities is squeezed into the blood vessels, and when the compression stops, the heart straightens again and a new portion of blood from the veins enters it. Repeating sharp and strong pressing on the front of the chest, you can artificially maintain blood circulation in the vessels.

The first signs of heart failure.

Severe cyanosis or pallor.
The pulse on the radial and carotid arteries is not felt.
When listening to the ear, the heart cannot be heard.

The procedure for conducting closed heart massage is as follows. The victim is laid on his back on a hard, level surface. The one who will help, becomes on the left and puts the palm of one hand on the lower part of the chest of the victim, and on it puts the palm of the second hand. Then, with vigorous jerky movements of the arms, extended in the elbow joints, the resuscitator presses on the sternum. After each pressure, the hands should be lifted from the chest, giving her the opportunity to straighten out so that the heart cavities are filled with blood. About 60 pressures should be performed per minute.

Signs of cardiac recovery.

The appearance of an independent pulse in the carotid or radial arteries.
Reducing pallor or cyanosis of the skin.

Resuscitation and its timing in emergency situations.

The success of resuscitation depends on the time it began after the accident, the correctness and quality of artificial respiration and closed heart massage, or a combination thereof. But the combination of these two methods when the victim returns to life is possible only if at least two people provide assistance. Alone, although this is possible, it is very difficult and ineffective.

When helping together, one of them does a heart massage, and the other at the same time, artificial respiration. In this case, the victim must be injected into his mouth or nose every four thrusts on his sternum. If one person provides assistance, then the sequence of resuscitation techniques and their regimen change every two rapid air injections into the lungs 10-12 squeezes of the chest with an interval of 1 second.

As soon as the cardiac activity becomes stable (the pulse begins to be felt and the heartbeat is heard), artificial respiration is continued until it is completely independent. In the absence of heart contractions, artificial respiration and heart massage are carried out from 60 to 90 minutes, but if neither one nor the other has appeared during this period, then resuscitation can be stopped.

Clear signs of biological death.

Corneal clouding and drying.
When squeezing the eyes with fingers from the sides, the pupil narrows and resembles a cat’s eye.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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