Asphyxiation most often occurs when air is prevented from entering the lungs when the airways become obstructed by snow, water, etc. This can occur when drowning, getting into the mud, avalanche, spasms of the vocal cords with closing of the glottis, damage to the upper respiratory tract.
Choking and asphyxia, the first pre-medical care for suffocation and asphyxiation in extreme situations and wildlife.
Vomiting in the respiratory tract or retraction of the tongue, which often occurs with loss of consciousness, can also lead to suffocation. Choking can occur when squeezing the chest when falling into a wet avalanche, being under a landslide, when squeezing from crushing a person with stones or fragments of a building, and a number of other similar circumstances.
Loss of consciousness.
If any of the signs of suffocation is present, urgent measures must be taken to rescue the victim. They are different depending on the condition of the victim..
If the victim is conscious.
He needs to quickly and clearly explain what actions and techniques will be used to assist.
Grasp the victim from behind in a standing position, squeeze fingers into a fist and push the thumb upwards from the belt onto the stomach area.
Put the other hand over the fist and, with a sharp jerky movement, push inward and upward under the ribs.
If these actions did not help, then they should be repeated several times until the respiratory tract is completely free of the foreign body.
If the victim fainted.
Need to lay him on his back.
Tilt your head back and raise your chin up (to avoid lowering the tongue).
If the injured person is not breathing, start artificial respiration immediately..
If you can’t breathe air into the victim’s mouth, then you need to give him a coma pose, then put both palms on his stomach just above the navel and with a sharp movement away from you, press on the stomach.
If necessary, repeat these steps several times until the airways are completely released and normal breathing is restored..
However, it should be remembered that for a person who is in an unconscious state, such a position of the body will be safe in which he can breathe freely and prevents the possibility of suffocation or inhalation of vomit. Therefore, the victim should be laid on his stomach, his head to one side, the location of the limbs should maintain the body in a stable position and prevent unconscious turning on its back. But this is only possible if the victim has normal breathing and there is no suspicion of spinal injury.
After the victim is laid in a coma, every 1-2 minutes you need to check for pulse and breathing. In their absence, it is necessary to immediately begin to do artificial respiration. First aid, first of all, consists in finding out the cause of suffocation and taking measures to eliminate it. When the tongue is stuck, quickly pull it out of the mouth and attach it to the lower jaw in any way. Then hold artificial respiration.
After digging up a person who has fallen into an avalanche, they first determine if he has breathing and a heartbeat. If not, then you need to immediately start artificial respiration and a closed heart massage until recovery of spontaneous breathing. In order to combat the overcooling of the body, it is necessary to transfer the victim to a tent, under an awning near a fire, in any other shelter and warm him with additional clothes, put in a sleeping bag (if any) and drink hot water or tea. Alcohol is strictly contraindicated!
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.