Due to an accident, victims often receive various fractures. A fracture is considered a violation of the integrity of the bone. In the area of the fracture, the victim feels a sharp pain, intensifying when trying to change position. Fractures are open and closed, severe.
Assistance to victims of road traffic accidents with open and closed fractures of a finger, arm, leg, rib and pelvis, methods of immobilization in road accidents.
If the skin is damaged and bone fragments are visible in the wound, there is bleeding, pathological mobility is an open fracture. If there is only a change in the shape of the limb without a wound, hematoma, edema in the area of damage, impaired limb function, then this is a closed fracture.
If necessary, clean the victim’s airways.
To ensure the immobility of a broken limb.
Cut clothing at the wound site so that a bandage can be applied.
Stop bleeding, treat wounds and apply a sterile dressing.
To lay the tire.
Call the emergency ambulance team by phone 103 or deliver the victim in an accident by other means of transport to a medical institution.
It is impossible:
Do not stop bleeding.
Put a splint on a bare limb directly on a wound.
Move a damaged limb.
Touch a wound, set or remove bone fragments and foreign bodies.
One of the signs of a pelvic fracture is the forced posture of the victim, in which he least feels pain, a frog, when a person can not change the position of his legs. His feet are turned outward, his knees are slightly raised and also turned outward. In this case, damage to the hip joint, thigh bones, and spine is likely. Distinguished are also isolated (one bone), multiple (one bone in two places, two or more bones), combined (one and several bones with simultaneous damage to internal organs) fractures.
Immobilization of limbs in fractures.
In case of fractures, it is necessary to provide immobilization (immobility) of the damaged part of the body. This reduces pain, prevents further displacement of bone fragments and repeated wounding of blood vessels and soft tissues. When immobilizing, standard tires or any improvised means (narrow boards, sticks, etc.) are used. In their absence, it is possible to immobilize a damaged upper limb by tying it to the trunk, and the lower to a healthy leg. Tires are tied to a damaged limb with bandages.
Immobilization methods depending on the fracture site.
It is easiest to immobilize a hand by hanging it on a band of bandages or a triangular scarf that is tied around the neck. In case of fracture of the forearm bones, two tires are applied, which are applied on both sides of the palmar and back.
In case of a fracture of the finger, it must be tightly bandaged to the adjacent healthy finger.
Bind the injured leg to a healthy one in the area above and below the fracture. If the victim cannot be transported in the supine position, apply a splint covering at least two joints of the leg. The main splint overlays the back of the leg to prevent flexion of the joints.
The main task during a fracture is to immobilize broken bones, and since the ribs move when breathing, a fixation bandage should be applied to the chest. Then the person will breathe with the help of the abdominal muscles, and it will not hurt so much. If there are not enough bandages, the chest is wrapped tightly with a sheet, towel, scarf or other large piece of cloth. Do not let the person go to bed, because sharp fragments of the ribs can damage the internal organs. When fractured ribs must also be transported in a sitting position.
Pelvic fractures are often accompanied by damage to internal organs, bleeding and shock. The victim must be given a position in which there is a minimum of pain. It is best to put it on your back with a roller under your feet and slightly spread your hips to the sides. The roller can be made from clothes. Transportation of the victim is carried out on a solid shield after various anti-shock measures (pain relief, stopping bleeding).
Using a medical tire to immobilize a victim in an accident.
Pay attention to the composition of the car’s first-aid kit, the tires are not included, therefore, doctors advise drivers to manually equip it with these means. Tires are available in three sizes: for immobilization of the hand and forearm, for the foot and lower leg, for the knee joint and thigh.
When applying a tire, the following rules must be observed..
A splint is always applied to at least two joints (above and below the fracture site). If the humerus or femur is damaged, all three joints of the limb are fixed.
The tire is not superimposed on the exposed part of the body (cotton, gauze, clothing, etc. must be put under it).
The applied tire must not be loose, it must be fixed firmly and securely..
Based on the materials of the SAI Ukrainian Medical Center for Road Safety.