Automatic machine Nikonov AN-94 “Abakan”

The machine was created as part of an army competition. “Abakan” to replace the AK-74. Actually, talk on the topic “Abakan” (yes, it was the themes, and not the name of a particular, single sample, because in August 1981 the Commission on Military-Industrial Issues at the Council of Ministers of the USSR approved an experimental design work on “Abakan”) went for a long time – as early as the late 70s, the MSAU made a demand to increase the effectiveness of automatic firing by 1.5 – 2 times compared with the AK-74.

This two-paced automaton with a “displaced (delayed) recoil impulse” showed much higher accuracy than the AK-74. The mechanics of the machine is based on the principle of a vapor outlet with a movable unit barrel-gate-slide frame-receiver box. When firing by bursts, the entire block shifts back to the stop during the first two shots made at a high rate, then the transition to a low rate of firing is automatically made.

Thus, the shooter begins to feel the recoil of the weapon only after the second bullet leaves the barrel and leaves the first two bullets with very high (for machine gun) accuracy. Although it is formal AN-94 (Nikonov machine gun – by the name of the inventor Gennady Nikonov) seems to be adopted by the Russian Army, it is unlikely that in the foreseeable future it will replace the good old ones Kalashnikov assault rifles.

Construction AN-94

The main feature of appearance AN-94 is the widespread use of plastics (glass-fiber reinforced polyamide). The lodge in the classical sense is replaced here with a casing of the monitor type, inside of which a firing unit consisting of a barrel connected to the receiver is moving along metal guides. Inside the box are placed the bolt carrier with an unusually short bolt and trigger. The trigger mechanism is integrated with the pistol grip and, if necessary, is easily detached from the general operating mechanism.

What at first glance seems to be a gas tube with an unusual under-barrel placement, is in fact a guide lever that supports the barrel when it is rolled back on the principle of artillery. This is also equipped with an adapter and a standard 40-mm grenade launcher GP-25. It is noteworthy that the bayonet is not fastened in the lower, as in AK, position, but on the right side. This is done for reasons of ensuring simultaneous attachment of both the grenade launcher and the bayonet. In other constructions, before installing the grenade launcher, it is necessary to make sure that the bayonet is removed. On it in battle can spend the second dear to the life of a fighter.

In addition, the horizontal position provides greater, compared with the vertical, penetrating power in the intercostal space. In this position, with a bayonet, not only stabbing, but also side cutting blows can be done. As for the gas tube, it, as well as the entire firing unit together with the box are placed inside the casing.

When shooting in the casing of the machine there are two main movements:

  • roll back of the trunk connected to the box;
  • reciprocating bolt group.


The standard cartridge provides a rather high slaughter and penetrative action of the bullet. The machine is convenient for holding and aiming, it has good filling properties. It has higher accuracy and accuracy than AK, especially when firing in fixed lines. However, the accuracy of shooting is high only for the first two bullets in the queue. The rest of the bullets have a dispersion of almost the same as that of the Kalashnikov, therefore, it is not necessary to speak about the special effectiveness of firing in long bursts.

The recoil is practically not perceptible (by shooting at fixed bursts, the machine can be held in the hands without putting the butt against the shoulder). The “soft” sound of the shot does not tire the shooter. The queue of two shots is perceived by the ear as one shot. By effective firing range AN-94 exceeds AK by 1.2-1.3 times.


The design of an AN is more complex than an AK, which negatively affects its reliability (in particular, it is more sensitive to contamination of parts).

The performance characteristics of the machine Nikonov AN-94 “Abakan”

Caliber 5.45 mm
Cartridge 5.45 x 39 mm
Length 943 mm
Length with folded butt 728 mm
Barrel length 405 mm
Mass without store 3.85 kg
Initial bullet speed 950m / s
Rate of fire 1800/600 w / m *
Rate of fire 125 V / m
Sighting line length 520 mm
Store capacity 30,45,60 cartridges
Range firing efficiency 650 m
Sighting range 1000 m

*Note: the rate of fire of 1800/600 shots / min means that the first two shots with the automatic fire mode will be made at a tempo of 1800 shots / min, then all subsequent shots will be made at the usual rate, that is, 600 shots / min.


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