Bacteria and chemicals, pathogens, germs and toxins, precautions and protection.

Biological agents are divided into two groups: pathogens (microbes) and toxins. Pathogens are living microorganisms that cause lethal, disabling diseases such as anthrax. Toxins are poisons that are lethal to humans, which act on the nervous system and cause cell death.. 

Bacteria and chemicals, pathogens, germs and toxins, precautions and protection.

Microbes can enter the body with air, through damage to the skin, or through the digestive tract. They do not begin to act immediately, since first they need to multiply inside the body and overcome its protection.

and equipment in hot soapy water.


Anthrax is carried by animals and still kills many lives every year. The disease is transmitted from dead animals in places such as South America, Southern Europe, and the Middle and Far East. Her signs on the corpse include swelling, incomplete rigor mortis, dark-colored blood oozing from the nostrils and anus. Avoid any contact, and if it does occur, wash thoroughly. See your doctor as soon as possible. Antibiotics help, there is serum. The first signs of the disease are ulcers with a dark middle. Anthrax is also used as a biological weapon.

Chemical substances.

Chemical agents come in the form of a liquid, gas and aerosol. They can affect the respiratory organs, nervous system, or blood. Chemical agents are difficult to recognize, so keep an eye out for suspicious signs from your comrades. Shortness of breath, coughing, itching and tears are the most obvious symptoms.

The terrain will look deserted, vegetation discolored and wilted, corpses of animals and insects may be lying around. Some chemicals do not smell, and some have a characteristic odor. The smell of almonds unusual for this place may indicate an agent acting on the blood, and the smell of freshly cut grass on a suffocating substance.

Chemical Protection.

The whole body should be covered with suitable clothing that will interfere with the penetration of chemicals. Waterproof outerwear, goggles and a mask are of great importance. Leave the danger area and get decontaminated as soon as possible..

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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