To power household and amateur equipment, as well as lamps, cameras and some mobile electronic devices, manganese-zinc batteries and batteries with various electrolytes, salt, chloride or alkaline, and air depolarization are used.
Batteries and batteries, designation, electrochemical system, their capabilities and operating features.
Mercury-zinc, silver-zinc and lithium chemical power sources are also widely used. It is from these elements that batteries of different sizes are produced, so familiar to everyone, in particular finger batteries, sizes AA and AAA.
The designation of these batteries includes:
One letter defining an electrochemical system. For example, L alkaline, S silver-zinc, M or N mercury-zinc and others.
The letter R (from the English Ring Circle), talking about the shape of the element.
A number, for example 600, conditionally determining the size of the battery.
Applying chemical power elements of a particular system, it is important to know their capabilities and operation features.
Possibilities and features of the operation of chemical current sources with various electrolytes.
Manganese-zinc and carbon-zinc batteries and batteries.
Electrochemical system: zinc-manganese dioxide-electrode. These are Leclanche batteries (coal-zinc), with salt electrolyte, an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride. They can be operated at temperatures from minus 5 to plus 50 degrees. They have a noticeable self-discharge and insufficiently good tightness.
Another type of carbon-zinc chemical batteries with an aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The energy performance of these current sources is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the batteries and batteries of the previous group. They can be operated at temperatures from minus 15 to plus 70 degrees. They have less self-discharge and better tightness. Allow greater discharge current.
Alkaline batteries and batteries.
The electrochemical system is similar to the electrochemical system of manganese-zinc batteries, but alkali in the form of an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide is used here as an electrolyte. Alkaline batteries can be recharged up to 10-15 times, but their repeated return will not exceed 35% of the initial.
For recharging, batteries that maintain tightness and have a voltage of at least 1.1 Volts are suitable. Alkaline chemical current sources can be operated at temperatures from minus 25 to plus 55 degrees. Allow significant discharge currents.
Batteries and batteries with air depolarization.
Electrochemical system: zinc-air-hydrate of potassium oxide. For the supply and retention of air (oxygen), special designs and materials of the cathode are used. The battery is activated only after removing the plug, which allows access to air. Chemical current sources with air depolarization can work at temperatures from minus 15 to plus 50 degrees. They have high energy performance. Recommended for significant pulsed loads..
Zinc-mercury batteries and batteries.
Electrochemical system: zinc-oxide of mercury — sodium oxide hydrate. These current sources have high energy performance. Effective at positive temperatures from 0 to plus 50 degrees. At low discharge currents and a stable temperature, the voltage on the battery remains almost unchanged. Virtually no gassing. Due to the presence of mercury, such batteries are environmentally harmful and are therefore not recommended for use..
Silver-zinc batteries and batteries.
Electrochemical system: zinc-monovalent silver hydrate of potassium oxide or sodium. Such current sources have a small self-discharge, have outstanding energy characteristics and an almost constant voltage during operation, at a constant temperature. Temperature range from 0 to plus 55 degrees.
Lithium batteries and batteries with organic electrolyte.
This includes more than ten electrochemical systems. The voltage on the battery is from 1.5 to 3.6 Volts. Energy performance is better than mercury and silver-zinc batteries. By weight, they are 3 times less, by volume 1.5-2 times. A good example of batteries for mobile phones and portable radio.
Lithium power sources have an extremely small self-discharge. Save more than 85% of capacity after 10 years of storage. They are tight and have a fairly stable voltage. In powerful devices where the reliability of contacts is important, lithium batteries with soldered leads are used.
Some markings on batteries and batteries.
Some features of batteries and rechargeable batteries, their primary purpose, can be judged by the inscriptions made on them. For example :
Alkaline alkaline electrolyte battery (battery).
Camera for photographic equipment.
Cigarette Lighter for Pocket Lighter.
Communication Device for Communications.
Game for electronic toys.
Hearing Aid for Hearing Aid.
Lighter for lighter.
Lithium lithium battery.
Marganese-Zinc Manganese Zinc Battery.
Measuring Equipment for measuring instruments.
Medical Instrument for medical devices.
Mercuric Oxide Mercury Battery.
Microphone for microphone.
Mini Radios for a miniature radio.
Nickel-Zinc Nickel-Zinc Battery.
Photographic Light Meter for photo exposure meter.
Pocket Bell for Pocket Alarm.
Silver Oxide Silver-Zinc Battery.
Standart Universal Battery.
Watch for watches.
Wristwatch for watches.
Based on materials from the book Wind Generators, Solar Panels, and Other Useful Designs.