The greatest danger when getting into an extreme situation anywhere in the world does not come from large animals that try to avoid meeting a person, but from small species of wild animals, insects, spiders and disturbed you. Many of them are dangerous not so much with poison as with the fact that they transmit dangerous diseases and transmit the infection through bites..
Bites of small animals, spiders and insects, first aid in extreme conditions.
Small rodent bites.
They can bite when trying to catch them, as well as at night if you sleep on grassy bedding and accidentally disturbed a rodent that got there. First aid consists in treating the bite site as with ordinary injuries.
Bites of bees, wasps, hornets, bumblebees.
Their nests, usually oblong or oval, are best avoided. If you nevertheless disturbed the swarm, then try to sit motionless for several minutes until they calm down, and after that, without making sudden movements, carefully crawl to the side. When the swarm attacks, flee, covering your face with your hands. It is best saved by water (river, lake) or dense shrub (undergrowth), which will delay insects. Their bites are painful, but not life threatening, if they are not multiple. When bitten, help consists in removing the sting from the wound. A cold compress will reduce inflammation and soreness. This applies to bites and bees, and wasps, and hornets, and bumblebees.
Tarantula and phalanx bite.
A tarantula bite is painful but not fatal. Much more dangerous is the bite of a salpuga, better known by the name of the phalanx. Salpuga is found in deserts and is not poisonous. But she eats carrion, and so-called cadaveric poison accumulates in her jaws. During a bite, cadaveric poison enters the wound, and severe poisoning of the body occurs. In deserts, semi-deserts, steppes and mountains, there are two more very dangerous representatives of arthropods and spiders. This is scorpio and karakurt.
Not very painful. Acute pain occurs after a while and lasts for many hours, sometimes more than a day. At the site of the bite, redness, swelling and even blisters develop. Often there is drowsiness, lacrimation, palpitations, diarrhea and vomiting. The most dangerous bites of black scorpions living in Africa, South America, Australia. Their bite is most often fatal.
Translated means black widow. The bites of this small black spider with a red cross on the back are not painful, but almost always fatal. It is distributed in zones of steppes, semi-deserts and deserts. Karakurt nests in the ground, using various recesses of the soil or mink of rodents, where at the entrance it stretches a hunting web. Most often, karakurt bites occur during the period of their migrations in May-July. But karakurt itself does not attack a person. Stings karakurt, as a rule, when accidentally touched.
The poison of karakurt is 15 times stronger than the poison of a rattlesnake, and therefore its bite is a mortal danger. In an extreme situation, the only reliable way to prevent a tragic outcome is to burn the wound with a red-hot head of a lit match for no more than three minutes after a bite. This proven method is used by experienced travelers and locals in those areas where karakurt is found. But even after cauterization with a match, not all poison is destroyed, part of it still penetrated the body. Therefore, you need to drink a lot, warming the limbs and the body around the fire.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.