Why is a fire needed in the forest? It is unlikely that there will be a person who would hesitate to answer this question. Any child who at least once stood near the fire will tell you without hesitation: And that it was warm! And he will be right. In the field, a bonfire is primarily used for heating, lighting and cooking. In addition, it often finds application for drying clothes and equipment, as well as for signaling.
Bonfire, preparing a place and fuel for a bonfire, raising and maintaining a bonfire.
Those who often go on expeditions also know that it is the flame of the fire that helps to relax faster, relieve psychological stress after a hard day, makes communication more relaxed, and gives joy and confidence. In short, no camp fire.
, then the distance is reduced to 1-1.5 meters, but this is a topic for a special conversation. It’s best to use a ready-made bonfire on which you or other people previously stood, it has already been tested. If you make a fire in a new place, then you should remove the sod from the site that you liked and remove dry leaves and grass one and a half two meters from the future campfire. The sod should be carefully stored somewhere behind the tents with grass down, and after folding the camp, put it back in its original place.
In winter, it is necessary to remove snow from the site of the future bonfire. If the snow cover is not deep, it is enough just to trample it, but it is best, of course, to rake the snow to the side with a shovel or scraper. This is done not only so that the bonfire does not fail. The melted snow around the bonfire forms a dirty puddle, which then, after mixing with numerous pairs of legs, turns into a very dirty puddle.
Its presence on the bivouac, dubious convenience. When the fire begins to burn less intensely, the far edges of this puddle freeze, and then you can easily slip and go straight into the fire, along the way taking with you a freshly boiled pot. What this is fraught with, you can find out in detail from the Medical tourist guide. In a place where there is frank tension with firewood, a bonfire is made in the surrounding area.
Then it is better protected from the wind, and heat is not blown out of the installation, fuel is consumed more economically. In addition, it is no longer necessary to look for flyers to suspend the pot; the crossbar or grille is placed directly on the walls of the hearth. In mountainous areas, the hearth is laid out from stones, and turf can be used in the steppes. Bushes, reeds, cow dungs (dried !!!), dry grass with powerful stems can also serve as fuel.
It is forbidden to make a fire.
To make a bonfire directly near trees, in coniferous young forests, next to accumulations of dry reeds, moss, reeds, grass, in forest felling and burnt areas, on peat bogs, on rocky placers. Especially if you are in an area covered with large areas of coniferous forest. Otherwise, the fire may turn out to be too large a squadron of fire-fighting aircraft is not enough to put out. In winter, be sure to check if there are branches of trees covered with snow hanging over your bonfire.
Flooded by a stream of warm air coming from below, it will certainly fall down and, at best, it will be behind your collar, in the worst it will instantly destroy the lighted fire with great difficulty. One of the heroes of Jack London, such a mistake, I remember, was worth his life. I foresee the question: what is the danger of stony placers? I answer the needles, humus, leaves accumulate in the space between the stones, and the fire, having got there, can easily spread to a fairly large distance.
Suitable fuel for a bonfire.
Naturally, firewood serves as fuel for the fire. They should be dry and in size to match the expected sizes and power of your future brainchild. That is why in a stationary camp it is advisable to organize a small sawmill. Usually prefer to use coniferous dead trees. They are perfectly sawed and prick well with an ax, coniferous dry land, even felled, does not give in to decay for a long time, and the flame always turns out to be hot, powerful and stable.
Pine, cedar and larch burn best. It is very good to use dry birch, but for cutting for firewood, it is necessary to look for dead wood deciduous leaves very quickly damp and rot. But dry birch, like alder, burns almost without smoke, which is especially true for those on duty who are cooking. Spruce, fir and aspen when burning give a lot of sparks, and even shoot with coals, which requires increased attention.
In general, I personally would advise aspen to be heated only when there is nothing else nearby and it is not expected that you will understand why, when aspen smoke gets into your eyes at least once. And I really do not recommend stoking a food fire with polyethylene, plastic bottles, roofing felt, car tires and other gifts of the chemical industry. No matter how well they burn. Because then in your bowler almost the entire periodic table will be present, and this is not very useful.
Features of a bonfire in the field.
Well, than to make a fire, we more or less understood. Now let’s figure out how to do it. Any hiker knows that it is impossible to make a fire without kindling. Even slivers in a finger thick do not light up directly from a faint match flame burning for three four seconds. The kindling is necessarily fine and dry material, small twigs, birch bark, moss, shavings, brooms, and the like.
Most often, dry spruce or pine spruce branches are used. There are usually a lot of it under the crowns of trees, by the way; there it remains dry even during rain. If you fill up the land, there should be no problems with spruce branches at all. The whole crown is at your disposal. In wet weather, you can use tar, wood chips from the center of an chopped ax block or a split branch, specially planed incendiary sticks.
The kindling is usually very neatly stacked with a hut. Such a scheme allows the match flame to warm the kindling elements over a longer length of its burning. It must be remembered that the match will quickly go out, and the first needles or slivers will burn with a very weak flame, so the kindling should be laid tightly so that the next layer above the occupied layer is ready to immediately pick up the baton.
Beginners often believe that by lighting several matches at once, they will increase their burning time. This is a mistake, because sulfur heads will light up almost simultaneously, and will burn synchronously. A hunting match burns for a longer time, the head of which is almost half its entire length.
In rain, start working with kindling only under an awning. You can immediately pull it over the site of the future bonfire, you can ask your comrades to hold a raincoat tent or polyethylene while you are making a bonfire. To become, or rather to bend over, or even to lie down on the windward side, in order to block with one’s body a weak still light from the wind. The land will probably be wet already, so if you work sitting on your knees, then immediately put a foam, a nurse, or at least just a piece of polyethylene under you, so that the cold water seeping through your clothes does not distract your attention from the main very responsible business.
Experienced bonfire under such conditions, kindling is laid on a layer of pre-chopped dry wood chips to prevent its contact with a cold and damp surface. The last two recommendations become especially relevant if you make a bonfire in the snow. And one more piece of advice for such a situation: they lighted the kindling IMMEDIATELY put the matches back in your pocket, they don’t need anything to dampen.
As a primary source of flame, you can use a candle, dry alcohol, a piece of plexiglass or rubber. They give a long and even flame, allowing you to set fire to even damp kindling. The kindling is ignited, naturally, from below, again from the windward side. When she took up, from above they begin to put the HITTEN PREPARED brushwood in the same hut. The most common mistake of a fire starter starting now is to set fire, and while it burns, I run after the rest of the lapnik or brushwood.
The kindling lights up, the unlucky bonfire runs to the forest for joy, and returns with an armful of brushwood to the barely smoldering embers. Bast yes bastard start all over again! Remember, even a properly laid kindling will burn for no more than a minute. Therefore, the branches that should light up from kindling must be at your fingertips. Therefore, kindling, brushwood, and even the first firewood should be prepared immediately. In general, the following principle of work is a sign of good similarity and organization of the group, and just a sign of good taste: one person makes a fire, the rest look for and bring fuel for him.
Moreover, the camp should always have a safe supply of kindling and brushwood, which is safely sheltered from inclement weather. Otherwise, in the morning, waking up, the shift on duty risks opening that unpleasant fact that after the rain last night there was not a single dry branch in the district. And then the time for which the breakfast will move forward, and with it the field work, will depend solely on her experience. Pencil or finger-thick brushwood and twigs are stacked evenly on all sides to keep the hut stable.
At this stage, it is especially important not to overdo it, not to put too much at once, otherwise the flame will suffocate in its own smoke. And of course, do not accidentally tumble down the styling. This, by the way, is the most important reason that one person should be engaged in directly making a fire. Some bonfires often try to keep the fire alive with the power of their lungs. There is nothing particularly terrible in this, you can even say that the respiratory system is training.
Just do not lean too close to the inflated bonfire, the flame can drastically sweep out and burn your face, or if a shot suddenly comes into the eye. It is best to take a seat and use it as a fan. When kindling a kindling, it’s better not to blow on it at all, or to do it very quietly, the flame is still weak, and you can easily blow it out.
Based on materials from the book Stalker Handbook. Alphabet of survival.