Mushrooms can be tried to grow at home or in the country. For breeding and growing champignons in a city apartment, you can buy compost sowing mycelium, divide it into parts and put it into three-liter jars with a layer of 15–20 cm.
Breeding and cultivation of mushrooms at home and in the country, in banks, amateur mushrooms, plastic bags, fruiting mushrooms and harvesting.
Champignon mycelium should be slightly crushed, leveled and covered with a layer of moist earth 2–2.5 cm thick. Then cover the banks with lids so that there is a ventilation gap and leave for a week in a shaded place at room temperature. It is necessary to ensure that the earth in the banks does not dry out, and if necessary, spray it from the spray gun, but do not fill it so that it turns into liquid mud.
After a week, the cans should be moved to a cool place where the temperature does not exceed 10-15 degrees. You can put them in the refrigerator for 3-4 days, making sure that the temperature in the banks does not drop below zero, otherwise the mycelium may freeze. Then the cans should be put in a warmer place, the temperature of which should not exceed 20 degrees. If all conditions are met, mushrooms will appear there in 10-14 days.
Breeding and cultivation of mushrooms in the country.
To breed champignons in the country, you first need to make compost. This will require:
100 kg of straw.
100 kg of manure, better than horse.
2.5 kg of urea or 3.5 kg of ammonium nitrate.
7-8 kg of crushed gypsum.
5 kg of chalk or limestone.
2 kg superphosphate.
Part of the straw can be replaced with herbal additives – hay, fallen leaves, potato tops, corn stalks. But no more than 1/3. To increase the yield of champignons, it is advisable to build a special box – champignon, but you can grow mushrooms in the garden under a canopy.
Growing champignons in amateur champignons.
To obtain compost, you need at least 100 kg of straw and 100 kg of manure, otherwise fermentation will not begin. With this amount of compost, at a 20-cm depth of the layer, you can fill the champignon with an area of 4 m2. The average yield of champignon mushrooms in such mushrooms can reach 15 kg / m2. Mushrooms are made in the form of long boxes with a width of 50 cm, a depth of 70 cm and a total area of 4 m2, which are placed along the northern wall of a house or a barn and buried by 50 cm in the ground.
The wall of the boxes adjacent to the structure is made slightly higher outward. From above, the boxes are closed with an inclined lid so that rainwater does not get inside. The aerial part of the champignons is insulated with peat, straw or polystyrene. At the junction of the lid and drawer make a foam pad.
From below, the boxes must be protected from mice, rats and molds by placing them on a concrete slab or other suitable layer. At the bottom of the box there is a gap of 8 cm high, covered with a perforated concrete slab – the lower ventilation duct. Ready compost is laid on a plate with a layer of 20 cm, and on top 3 cm of the coating layer. A free space of about 30 cm remains in the drawer.
Burlap panels are horizontally attached under the lid, so that a triangular space remains between them and the top lid – the upper ventilation duct. The free edges of burlap cloths are dipped in water tanks, they absorb water and maintain humidity in the champignon.
Ventilation holes are cut in the upper part of the end walls of the box so that they fall into a triangular space above the burlap and are covered with nets to protect them from dust and insects. During the germination of the mycelium, they are covered with shutters, because ventilation is not needed at this time.
Amateur champignon can give two crops per season, spring-summer and summer-autumn. With well-prepared compost, up to 120 kg of mushrooms per year can be obtained from it. In between breeding, boxes must be cleaned and decontaminated to avoid diseases and pests.
Growing champignons in plastic bags.
This method of growing champignons is designed for inexpensive rooms and a minimum of mechanization. Therefore, it is widespread in countries with low labor costs. The disadvantage of this system is that the bags do not allow you to use the place as efficiently as the racks or boxes, on which you can get twice as much yield per square meter of rented area than when growing mushrooms in bags.
If the cost of the premises is insignificant, bags are advantageous to use, because they are cheaper than trays and boxes. During the growth of mycelium in bags, the temperature of the substrate is higher than in boxes, therefore, lower heating costs. In addition, they are more hygienic, they are easy to tolerate in case of fungal disease and at the end of the growing cycle.
Bags are used once. They are best made from polyethylene with a film thickness of at least 0.12 mm. The optimal diameter of the bag is 40–50 cm. The depth of the empty bag should exceed the depth of the substrate by 20 cm. That is, with a thickness of the substrate with a layer of 30 cm, the depth of the empty bag should be at least 50 cm. The bag must be welded or glued without leaving any gaps in the side seams, because water flows through them and penetrates the mold.
The optimal depth of compost packing is about 30 cm. During the overgrowth of the mycelium, the substrate self-heats up, and the temperature of self-heating can be controlled by arranging the bags. The closer the bags are, the higher the temperature in them. In the cold season, a closer chess arrangement is used; in summer, the bags are arranged in parallel rows.
Compost for culture in bags is prepared a little drier than usual. About 25 kg of compost mixed with seed mycelium is placed in each bag. During the overgrowth of the substrate with mycelium, it is necessary to ensure that there is no overheating.
Fruiting champignons and harvesting.
Champignons bear fruit in waves. Periods of abundant appearance of fruit bodies of champignons are replaced by periods when there are almost no fungi on the substrate. A good crop will grow in sharp waves – in one day the whole surface is covered with mushrooms. Then, fruiting is stopped in order to resume abruptly in 7–9 days. Stretched waves give the worst crop. If all conditions are met, the size of the crop depends on the quality of the compost..
Champignons are harvested when the film covering the plates on the hat becomes stretched or slightly cracked. After opening the hat, the weight of the mushroom almost does not increase, and the nutritional value decreases, so there is no need to leave the mushrooms to grow. Mushrooms are harvested by hand, removing them from the substrate by rotational motion. The mushroom taken out is shaken off from the dirt and put immediately in the packaging.
Knives cannot be cut with a knife, because the legs of champignons left in the substrate rot and attract various pests and pathogens. For the same reason, do not leave mature mushrooms in the champignon..
Based on materials from the book “Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest ”.
Zvonarev N. M.