For shooting at a large beast use bullets of various designs. There are a large number of types of bullets for hunting smoothbore guns. The bullets are often made by hunters themselves, for which they use special bullets of various kinds.
Bullets for hunting smooth-bore guns, assessment of the quality of combat by bullets when shooting from a smooth-bore gun, classification of bullets for hunting rifles.
A number of hunter-inventors are developing new designs of bullets or improve existing ones. Description of bullets of unknown design is found in the literature quite often. As practice shows, most of them are inferior in terms of performance to the bullets already at the disposal of hunters.
Therefore, of the approximately 200 types of bullets patented in this century, and an even larger number produced by artisans, only about two dozen have found widespread use in different countries. To determine the positive and negative qualities of bullets of various types, it is necessary to conduct appropriate tests. Evaluation of the quality of the battle with bullets when firing a smoothbore gun is made by comparing with the table below.
Evaluation of the quality of a shotgun battle while shooting a bullet.
Shooting is carried out from a distance of 50 meters of at least 6 shots from each barrel. The quality of the battle of each barrel is evaluated separately. In addition to the accuracy of the battle, their initial speed, falling speed in flight, and impact energy are of great importance for the characteristics of bullets. These indicators can be found out only when working on a special stand.
The energy of bullet impact, also called the projectile’s manpower, depends on the mass of the bullets and their speed at the time of the hit of the target. The higher it is, the higher the bullet rate. However, the cross-sectional area of bullets is of no small importance. With equal masses and speeds, bullets with a large cross-section cause, as a rule, great damage, that is, they are more lethal.
The increase in slaughter is often also achieved by the special construction of bullets – their ability to easily deform or unfold in the body of the beast. To characterize bullets sometimes use one indicator – the transverse load. It is determined by the ratio of the mass of the bullet to its cross section. The drop in speed depends on the transverse load, and accordingly the impact energy at the moment it hits the target.
The material from which the bullet is made strongly affects the degree of its deformation at the time of the shot, and therefore its ballistics. Most bullets are made from lead-based alloys with additives that increase its hardness (antimony, arsenic anhydride and others), but bullets from other metals and alloys (brass, steel, copper) are not rare. It is best to shoot bullets from the trunks of a cylindrical drill. Shooting from a choke slightly affects the quality of the shot, especially with a round bullet.
Classification of bullets for hunting smoothbore guns.
The whole variety of bullets produced can be classified according to various criteria. Usually they are divided into ordinary bullets, as well as bullets arrow, turbine and arrow-turbine types. A more detailed classification was proposed by D. Polyakov. It is based on the principle of stabilizing a bullet in flight and includes five groups.
The following is the classification and its relationship with the four main types:
1. An ordinary bullet that does not have stabilization in flight.
2. A bullet stabilized in flight by rotation due to the gyroscopic aerodynamic effect created by the outer aerodynamic oblique ribs, with wads rigidly attached to the tail of the bullet, as well as the displacement of the center of gravity to its head (arrow-turbine type).
3. A bullet stabilized in flight mainly due to the displacement of the center of gravity to the warhead, and also sometimes due to the gyroscopic aerodynamic effect created by the outer aerodynamic fins. Pointer, less often arrow-turbine type.
4. A bullet stabilized in flight by rotation due to the aerodynamic shock effect created by the shape of the bullet. In this group, sub-caliber bullets of the same type (arrow type) can be distinguished as a separate subgroup.
5. A bullet stabilized in flight by rotation due to the gyroscopic aerodynamic effect created by aerodynamic fins located in the internal cavities of the bullet (turbine type).
It should be noted that the above division of bullets into various groups and types is very arbitrary. It relies on the external structural features of bullets and rather speculative conclusions about how they should behave during the flight. In practice, it can be considered proven that the external inclined ribs do not impart rotational motion to the bullets, especially since they, as a rule, crumple when passing through a zero narrowing.
According to some studies, the inner ribs in turbine-type bullets also do not provide rotation, since an air lock obstructing it forms in the inner channel. So, most likely, bullets of any design fired from a smoothbore gun do not rotate, and their ballistics depend on the location of the center of gravity, the shape and the presence of stabilizing wads.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..