Burns are tissue damage resulting from exposure to heat. Types of burns vary. For example, obtained during a fire, in contact with hot metal, corrosive chemicals, steam or a hot liquid, or when exposed to electric current.
Burns, types of burns, first aid, treatment of chemical, electrical, sunburns, burns from lightning, burns to the mouth and throat, blisters from burns.
According to the degree of damage, the following types of burns are distinguished:
Superficial (only the upper layer of the skin suffers).
Moderately deep (the entire thickness of the skin is affected).
Deep (not only the skin is affected, but also the underlying tissues).
The strength of the pain does not reflect the severity of the injury. Superficial and moderately deep burns are often more painful than deep burns, in which nerve endings die..
What to do when getting a burn, first aid.
Cool the burned area immediately with a stream of cold tap water. If clothing is stuck to the skin, do not try to remove it, but cut it around the attached areas. Remove jewelry, rings, watches, and other objects that might become stuck due to swelling from the burned area..
Continue cooling the burn for up to 20 minutes. A stream of water should not fall into the affected area itself, but near so as not to aggravate the pain. See a doctor. If the area of the burned area exceeds the size of the palm of the victim, call an ambulance. If burns are received during a fire, then the victim is often poisoned by smoke in the respiratory tract, among other things.
Cover the burned area with a sterile non-stick dressing. Fix it with a bandage or gauze, not too pressing. If there is no sterile dressing, use a sheet or other clean, lint-free cloth. Dressing the burn site will reduce pain and reduce the risk of infection. If a hand is burned, the victim can support it with another hand or lay it on a pillow.
In anticipation of the “First Aid”, lay down the victim, slightly raising his legs with a pillow or folded blanket. If the burns are large, the victim should neither eat nor drink in case of anesthesia.
Chemical burn treatment.
If the burned chemical substance was in the form of powder or crystals, first brush off these particles with a clean soft cloth, and then cool the sore spot like you would with any other burn. Chemical burns cool down to 15 minutes. To treat the effects of a chemical burn, be sure to consult a doctor.
Electric burn treatment.
If an electric current passed through the body, then all the tissues in its path are affected. Having eliminated contact with the current source, immediately cool the current inlet and outlet. If current has passed through the heart, cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be required..
Treatment for burns from lightning.
This is also an electric lesion with input and output burns. The consequences are usually serious. Probable cardiac arrest. Call an ambulance as soon as possible. The victim must lie still while the burns are being treated. In case of cardiac arrest, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation until the arrival of a team of doctors.
Treatment of burns to the mouth and throat.
When swallowing very hot food or liquid, superficial burns of the upper digestive tract are possible. In addition to severe pain, swelling of the oral mucosa and pharynx is likely. As a result, breathing is difficult or even blocked. This can be life threatening, therefore immediate medical attention is needed. While waiting for the ambulance, give the victim a cold drink in small sips (but not ice!). In case of respiratory arrest, perform mechanical ventilation.
Prolonged exposure to the sun is fraught with painful superficial burns. If the burns are not very extensive, some relief of the pain is provided by cooling with a jet of water and lubricating the skin with sunburn lotion (for example, based on calamine). It is advisable to drink often, for example fruit juices. If sunburn is extensive or very painful, consult a doctor. In a small child, dehydration is possible. Therefore, in severe cases, hospitalization is required.
It is better not to let the blisters burst, since the “cushion” of their liquid contents partially reduces pain. The burnt area with blisters should be covered with a bandage so that they do not accidentally pierce. Gradually, the blister begins to subside as the fluid is absorbed back. If the blister is painful or located so that it cannot be protected, seek medical attention. Perhaps the doctor will open the blister in sterile conditions.
Based on the book Ambulance, home directory of emergency conditions.