Carabiners is the main connecting link of mountaineering. Currently, many carbines of various shapes, sizes and designs are industrially produced..
Carabiners and braces, extension loops, safety and release device, clamp, self-insurance, dynamic and static rope, cord, basic characteristics and requirements.
Carabiners can be divided into:
Steel and duralumin. For mountaineering, it is recommended to choose duralumin carbines, as they are easier.
With coupling and without coupling. Carabiners without a clutch are usually used in pairs and are tightened.
With automatic coupling (bayonet) and with threaded coupling. Carbines with a threaded (screwdriver) coupling are recommended, as they are more reliable.
Carabiners also vary in shape and size. Separately, the shape of the HMS pear-shaped carbines should be highlighted. 3-4 carbines of this form must be in the list of equipment. By size, carbines can be very arbitrarily divided into large (more than 100 mm long) and small (up to 100 mm). Large carabiners are easy to use and more versatile, but they have more weight.
The optimal set of carbines at the initial stage: 3-4 pieces of large carbines (HMS forms) and 3-4 pieces of small carbines. For the organization of intermediate points of insurance using pairs of carbines without a clutch connected to each other by a loop-guy.
This design allows you to “straighten” the extra bends of the rope and thereby reduce friction. The flexible design virtually eliminates the possibility of spontaneous snap out of the rope from the carabiner in case of failure. The length of the stitch loops is selected depending on the topography. When climbing routes equipped with jumpers, they usually use short 10-15 cm guy lines.
The term “carbine” came to us from about the 17th century as the name of the device by which the eponymous weapon was attached to the shoulder strap. The first device, close to what we are using now, was patented by the United States in 1868. For a long time, carbines were steel and without a clutch. Muffled carbines began to be massively used only 40-50 years ago.
The presence of the coupling significantly increases the safety of the product, preventing its accidental opening. In some ways, the development of a carbine in time coincides with the development of computer and other technologies. Now we are witnessing the peak of engineering.
Hinges are used to knit safety stations and to lengthen intermediate points of insurance in order to reduce the friction of the rope. As a rule, the standard lengths are 60, 120 and 200 cm. Hinges are made of different widths and from different materials. Usually this is a polyamide sling or a sling made of dinima material. Both materials have their own significant advantages and the same disadvantages..
Standard loop thickness is from 8 to 20 mm. Regardless of the diameter of the rope, the loops withstand the same load, but have different weights and volumes. Thin loops wear out faster.
Comparison of slings made of polyamide (nylon) and daima.
Relatively elastic. To some extent softens the jerk.
Heavy and voluminous compared to daima.
Lightweight, durable, easy to use.
Extremely tough, doesn’t absorb shock at breakdown.
Due to the “race” for the low weight and volume of the product are very light and thin. This leads to rapid wear due to friction on the rocks..
Until recently, the so-called “eight” was used as such a device. A figure-eight plate with two holes and sometimes “horns” for fixing the rope. Currently, it has been replaced by a more modern, convenient and multi-functional device..
It is suitable for working with single and double rope, for descent, it can be used to fix the rope and even as a clamp when climbing a fixed rope. There are many names for this device: “basket”, “basket”, “glass”, “reverse”. The prototype of this device is the Sticht washer..
When choosing a safety and launching device, it is important to pay attention to the width of the slots under the rope. They should be as wide as possible, there should also be two holes. Ear for fastening on a carbine and a small hole (about 10 mm) to unlock the device.
A clip, or “jumar,” on behalf of one’s own. So called one of the first rope clamps. The clamp is used as a handle to move up the fixed rope (railing). It is important to remember that the clamps are designed for loads not exceeding 400 kg and are not designed for dynamic loads..
Self-insurance is understood as a special product or a piece of dynamic rope designed to ensure safety at a safety station. The length of the self-insurance is usually 50-75 cm. It is recommended to use a self-insurance made of a dynamic rope, as in this case it will not only provide positioning, but also can effectively keep the insured in case of a possible breakdown. Mitigating jerk in case of error while working at the station.
There are many products for ITO (movement technique using artificial insurance points on difficult terrain), such as daisy chain, safe chain, “cliff”, which are used to position the climber on the wall. Keep in mind that under certain conditions this may not be safe..
Dynamic and static rope.
Rope is the main insurance tool. Ropes can be divided into 2 groups: dynamic and static. First of all, a climber needs a dynamic rope. Its main purpose is to extinguish the breakthrough upon failure to acceptable values. Thus, reducing the load on the body of the broken and the upper point. The energy of the fall is absorbed due to the strong stretching of the rope (elongation reaches 15%).
Depending on the climbing conditions, preference may be given to a dynamic rope of the following types:
An ordinary rope that can be used for insurance. Such a rope is marked with the number 1 in a circle. Single rope diameter from 8.7 mm.
A rope with a diameter of 7.5 mm or more, which is used in tandem with another similar rope. Moreover, they alternately snap into different intermediate points of insurance. Such ropes are marked with 1/2.
The rope has a diameter of 6.9 mm. The purpose of double ropes involves their use as one, i.e., both ropes are fastened together at all intermediate points of insurance. Such ropes are marked with an icon consisting of two intersecting rings..
At the initial stage of climbing, they usually choose a single dynamic rope with a diameter of 9.4-10 mm, with water-repellent impregnation. Impregnation increases the cost of the rope, but increases its lifespan and improves performance.
Static ropes have high strength and relatively low static elongation of 3-5%. Such ropes are used to organize railings in the mountains, for rescue work, and other tasks, but they are not intended for insurance. A static rope is hardly needed in the initial stages of climbing..
Basic requirements of EN892 / UIAA101 standards for dynamic ropes.
In addition to the rope, you will need an auxiliary cord (cord or cordelet) with a diameter of 7 mm.
Minimum cord strength according to EN564.
Conventionally, we call a cord a cord 1.5-2 meters long, 7 mm in diameter, and a cordelet (French cordelette cord) a cord 5 meters long, 7 mm in diameter.
Based on the book School of mountaineering, a training manual.