Of all the human foods consumed, carbohydrates are the most important source of energy. On average, they account for between 50 and 70% of the calorie content of the daily human diet.
Carbohydrates, role in human nutrition, carbohydrate intake, main sources of carbohydrates, starch and sugar, fiber and pectin.
The main carbohydrates of food are complex sugars. The so-called polysaccharides, starch and glycogen, built from a large number of residues of simple sugars, or monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose, etc.). Regular beet sugar refers to disaccharides, since its molecule consists of glucose and fructose residues.
The daily need for carbohydrates for an adult engaged in mental or light physical labor ranges from 400 to 500 grams. For persons of retirement age, this rate is reduced to 300-400 grams..
The main sources of carbohydrates in human nutrition. The content of digestible substances, grams per 100 grams of product.
Carbohydrate requirements are very much dependent on the energy expenditure of the body. At rest and moderate, digestion and carbohydrates equally provide energy to the body. With extremely hard work, the main energy reserve is carbohydrate reserves. During sports, the daily intake of carbohydrates in the diet can increase to 900 grams..
Comparative carbohydrate content in raw vegetables and fruits (%).
When organizing a balanced diet, one should not forget that the intake of carbohydrates in the body must correspond to energy consumption. Carbohydrates that are not used to maintain energy resources are converted into fat in the body. About 100 grams of fat is formed from 100 grams of carbohydrates. Excess carbohydrates are also harmful for other reasons. The content in blood cholesterol increases, the activity of beneficial intestinal microflora is inhibited.
Starch and sugar.
The main carbohydrate in human nutrition – starch – is found in very large quantities in plant foods – cereals, bread, pasta, vegetables, fruits. A concentrated source of energy for muscle work is pure carbohydrate – sugar. However, excessive consumption of sugar is undesirable, since the fructose contained in it in this case contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
Healthy young people are recommended to consume 80-100 grams of sugar per day, athletes and people engaged in intense physical labor, a little more, but at the same time, one-time intake of sugar and sweets should be limited to 80-100 grams, since a constant blood sugar level is a prerequisite normal functioning of the body. In adulthood and old age, as well as with a sedentary lifestyle, the sugar rate must be reduced to 50 g per day.
Fiber and Pectin.
A certain role in the human body is played by carbohydrates, known as ballast substances. These include fiber and pectin. These compounds are poorly digestible, but they are favorable for the intestines. They enhance peristalsis, normalize the vital activity of beneficial microflora, inhibit the reproduction of putrefactive microflora.
Fiber is a polysaccharide that is part of the membranes of plant cells. In large quantities it is found in many vegetables, fruits, leaves and stems of plants. Pectin is also found in fruits and vegetables. They are able to bind and remove harmful compounds from the body..
Based on materials from the book Homemade Travel Equipment.