Cartridges for hunting cartridges, metal, paper, plastic, positive and negative qualities of cartridges of various types, the correspondence of the cartridge case to the length of the chamber.

The cartridges of hunting cartridges serve to combine all the elements of the equipped cartridge into a single whole. Their protection from extraneous influences, and also prevent the breakthrough of powder gases into the shutter. According to the material from which they are made, cartridges for hunting cartridges are divided into three types: metal, paper, they are also called folder or cardboard, and plastic. 

Cartridges for hunting cartridges, metal, paper, plastic, positive and negative qualities of cartridges of various types, the correspondence of the cartridge case to the length of the chamber.

Metal cartridges for hunting cartridges are mainly made of brass. A few decades ago, copper and steel sleeves were produced in the USSR, now they are still found in hunters, but in very small quantities. Some countries produce aluminum sleeves. They were not widespread, but occasionally appeared in stores. All that will be said below about metal sleeves applies only to their most common type – brass sleeves.

Brass cartridges for hunting cartridges are mainly produced for 12, 16, 20, 28th and 32nd rifles under the Centroboy capsule, and in recent decades under the Zhevelo cartridge, for rifles of the same calibers except the 32nd . All of them are designed for a chamber with a length of 70 mm, although in the past, when guns with a 65 mm chamber made up a significant percentage of the weapons in use, they also produced shells of the corresponding length.

Paper (folder) sleeves for hunting cartridges.

This type of cartridge case is made from several layers of extremely durable Kraft paper. At the bottom, the paper cylinder ends with their metal (currently – brass) head with a capsule socket. Their length is different: 65 and 70 mm – for chamber of different lengths. Now folder sleeves are produced only under the “Zhevelo” capsule, however in the past they were produced under the open type capsule. In this case, special anvils were attached to the sleeves, which were a metal comb with a shank, with which it was inserted into the hole of the capsule socket.

Note to the picture: sizes D, D1, d, h for different calibers are given in the tables below.

Cartridges for hunting cartridges, metal, paper, plastic, positive and negative qualities of cartridges of various types, the correspondence of the cartridge case to the length of the chamber.

Plastic sleeves for hunting cartridges.

Plastic shells for hunting cartridges are now widely used. Outwardly, they resemble folder sleeves, but the paper part is replaced by a plastic one. This type of cartridge case is mainly produced for the 12th and 16th calibers under the chamber of 70 mm for use with the Zhevelo capsule. Other types of sleeves (for example, cast from plastic) are also rarely used, but their positive and negative qualities are not well understood, and they have not yet become widely used.

Positive and negative qualities of cartridges for hunting cartridges of various types.

Metal casings for hunting cartridges.

The positive qualities of sleeves of this type include their high profitability (they can be equipped with several tens, and sometimes a hundred times) and a small dependence on external conditions. They work at any temperature and humidity and usually do not lose their qualities after falling into water.

Negative properties:

1. A large mass. A metal sleeve weighs more than 20 g, while a folder or plastic one weighs about 8 g.
2. Most guns have a chamber drilled under a paper sleeve. Shooting from them with cartridges with a brass sleeve reduces the sharpness of the battle by 10-15%, worsens the scree of the shot and other ballistic indicators of the shot.

3. In metal sleeves it is more difficult to fix a shot wad. There is a danger of spilling fractions or wads into the bore, which, when fired, leads to its deformation. There are a number of techniques that securely fix the shot wad, but all of them noticeably lengthen the process of equipping cartridges.

Some negative qualities are characteristic of the most widespread brass sleeves with a nest under the Centroba capsule:

1. A capsule of this type does not provide rapid ignition of smokeless powder, which leads to a sharp drop in the sharpness of battle. Therefore, in such cartridges smoke powder should be used, which, as is known, gives a less stable battle, which is most affected when firing a bullet. To use the “Centroboy” with smokeless powder, it is recommended to add several grains of smoke powder to the capsule nest.

2. With repeated use of metal sleeves under the “Centroba”, the anvil sometimes deteriorates in them, which leads to misfires. In the brass sleeves under Zhevelo, the above-mentioned properties do not appear, but the capsule nest often deforms after several shots, which makes it impossible to use them further.

Paper (folder) sleeves for hunting cartridges.

The positive qualities of sleeves of this type include:

1. On average, a more “high-quality” ballistic shot by a cartridge in a paper sleeve compared to a cartridge in a brass sleeve, because the chamber of most guns is drilled under a paper sleeve. However, it should be remembered that some of the guns have a chamber drilled under a metal sleeve, and firing from them with cartridges with a paper sleeve reduces the quality of the battle.
2. Paper sleeves are much lighter than metal.

Negative properties:

1. Paper shells are designed for only one shot. Some of them can withstand 2 and even 3 shots, but these indicators are still not comparable with those of brass shells..
2. Paper tubes swell in a humid atmosphere or after exposure to water.

Plastic sleeves for hunting cartridges.

They have all the positive qualities inherent in paper, while the negative properties are not so pronounced. Plastic sleeves withstand 3-10 shots or more, do not react air humidity.

A negative property of plastic sleeves is a loss of elasticity at very low temperatures (below minus 30 degrees), but in practice this property can manifest itself only in Siberia or in the Far North.

Brands on sleeves for hunting cartridges.

The caliber, year of manufacture of the thermowell, brand of the manufacturer or country may be indicated on the bottom of the cartridges. In recent years, usually only the caliber or caliber and the manufacturer are indicated. The year of release indicated in the past is currently missing. On the paper sleeves on the glass, the length of the sleeve is sometimes indicated, which helps to avoid confusion when using cartridges twisted with an “asterisk”.

Correspondence of sleeve to chamber length.

Some hunters sometimes do not pay attention to this indicator. However, you should not neglect this, because the mismatch of the length of the sleeve to the length of the chamber reduces the “quality” of the shot, and sometimes can lead to breakage of the gun. For the shooting to be successful, the sleeve must be slightly shorter than the chamber. The difference between the lengths of the chamber and brass or loose paper (plastic) sleeve should be 0.5-1 mm, which is especially important for a paper sleeve, because her tube stretches a little when fired.

The main dimensions of paper and plastic sleeves according to GOST 7839-78 and GOST 23568-79.

Cartridges for hunting cartridges, metal, paper, plastic, positive and negative qualities of cartridges of various types, the correspondence of the cartridge case to the length of the chamber.

The main sizes of paper and plastic sleeves for hunting cartridges.

Cartridges for hunting cartridges, metal, paper, plastic, positive and negative qualities of cartridges of various types, the correspondence of the cartridge case to the length of the chamber.

An excessively long sleeve hardly enters the chamber, causes a sharp increase in the pressure of powder gases, which compress the projectile and powder wad on the ramp from the chamber to the bore, and spoil the battle. A long non-cartridge case of a folder sleeve during a shot develops a twisted edge.

It lies on a ramp and, thus, compresses the shot shell and deforms the powder wad, as a result of which powder gases burst between the walls of the bore and the wad compressed by the barrel’s barrel. As a result, the flight speed of the shot decreases and the scree of the shot shell spoils.

With excessive compression of the powder wad and projectile, the pressure of the powder gases greatly increases. In rifles of the 16th and 20th calibres when firing smokeless gunpowder this excess reaches 150 atm., That is, there is already a danger of barrel deformation.

In the case when the sleeve is shorter than the chamber by more than the thickness of the gases compressed when firing a powder wad, the ammunition also deteriorates, because powder gases burst into the shotgun. In this case, however, the deterioration of the ballistic performance of the shot does not pose a threat to the gun, but it pretty much reduces the constancy and sharpness of the battle.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..

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