Shooting from a rifled hunting weapon allows you to make an accurate shot from a long distance, which reduces the time spent on the extraction of the animal, and minimizes the appearance of wounded animals. In addition, when hunting a fur-bearing animal, shooting from a small-caliber rifled hunting weapon allows for minimal damage to the skin.
Cartridges for rifled hunting weapons, types of bullets and cartridges, the use of live ammunition in rifled hunting weapons.
The cartridges used for rifled hunting weapons may have cylindrical or bottle shells. In turn, both cylindrical and bottle sleeves can have a protruding flange without a groove or with a groove, or a non-protruding flange with a groove. In addition, only bottle-shaped liners can have a thickening of the walls at the bottom, forming an emphasis on the outside, fixing the position of the cartridge in the chamber.
Sleeves with a protruding flange are mainly used in combined hunting weapons and fittings. Sleeves with a protruding flange and a groove are used by self-loading and magazine hunting carbines.
Bullets for rifled hunting weapons, types.
Currently, special nitro-gunpowders are used in cartridges for rifled hunting weapons. The bullet is sent directly to the powder. A bullet for firing from a rifled hunting weapon can be a homogeneous lead (with impurities) or a shell. In the shell pool, the lead core is covered with an outer shell made of steel, tompac (an alloy of copper and zinc), a copper-nickel alloy, etc..
The steel shell is usually coated with a thin layer of tin, nickel, copper or any alloy to protect against corrosion. Quite often, the shell does not completely cover the core, leaving the head of the bullet not closed. Such bullets are called semi-shell.
According to their “behavior” after falling into the prey’s body, bullets can be divided into expansive and non-expansive, and expansive, in turn, are divided according to the degree of deformation into three types:
Bullets with a deformed warhead, which, when it enters an animal, increases the initial diameter by 1.5-2.5 times, but collapses a little and forms few fragments.
Semi-destructive bullets, in which the head part is completely destroyed, forming many fragments, and the more durable back part penetrates deep into the body of the animal.
Bullets completely collapsing when hit by an animal.
However, such a division of expansive bullets is arbitrary, since, depending on the circumstances, deforming bullets can become semi-destructible or collapsing, and vice versa.
Deforming expansive bullets for rifled hunting weapons.
Deforming expansive bullets are intended for hunting large thin-skinned animals. When it enters the body of the animal, the head part is deformed and turns around, and the body and base are deformed weakly and penetrate deeply into the body. Due to the expansive action of the head of the bullet, the diameter of the wound increases, and the particles of the shell and core, detached from the bullet, enhance the damaging effect.
Deforming bullets can have a different structure. The most typical half-shell bullet having a soft core, not coated in the head of the bullet. They also include bullets with a cavity in the head, covered with a metal cap. To enhance expansiveness, bullets are cut or ring grooves, or a solid metal wedge is placed inside them.
Dilapidated bullets for rifled hunting weapons.
Semi-destructible bullets are generally similar to deformable, they are also used when hunting large animals with relatively thin skin. Their action is similar, with the only difference being that when a door hits, most of the bullet is destroyed, and deep movement continues only to a solid foundation.
Destructive bullets for rifled hunting weapons.
Destructive bullets do not possess the breakdown power of two previous types of bullets. When hit by the target, they break up into many pieces and severely destroy tissue. By design, collapsing bullets can be semi-shell or have a hollow in the head. Their shell is thin, providing maximum destruction of the entire bullet.
Non-expansive bullets have a solid solid metal shell covering both the head and body. The shell is usually absent only from the base of the bullet. Non-expansive bullets of large caliber are intended for hunting large thick-skinned animals (elephants, rhinos).
These bullets are distinguished by a round head, providing less deviation when it enters the beast’s muscles and bones. Small-caliber non-expansive bullets equip in cartridges used when hunting for fur animals or large birds. They allow you to get prey with slightly damaged fur and undamaged fabrics..
Types of cartridges for rifled hunting weapons.
To date, seven types of cartridges for rifled hunting weapons have been produced:
1. Small-caliber hunting and sports cartridge of ring ignition, caliber 5.6 mm.
2. Small-caliber hunting cartridge, 5.6 mm caliber, central battle with an expansive semi-shell bullet for the Bars store carbine, designated 5.6×39, where 39 is the length of the cartridge case.
3. The hunting cartridge 7.62×39 for Simonov’s self-loading rifle (SCS) – a special hunting option with a semi-shell bullet.
4. Hunting cartridge 7.62×51 with an expansive half-shell bullet for the shop-mounted carbine “Los-4”, self-loading carbines “Medved-3” and “Medved-4”, fittings MTs-7-07, MTs-110-07.
5. Hunting cartridge 7.62×53 with an expansive half-shell bullet for a store carbine created on the basis of a three-line rifle and KO-44 carbine.
6. Hunting modernized cartridge of 8.2×66 caliber, with a semi-shell expansive bullet for the “KO-8.2” magazine rifle.
7. Hunting cartridge 9×53 with an expansive half-shell bullet for the “Los” store carbine, “Medved” and “Medved-2” self-loading carbines, nipples MTs-7-09, MTs-110-09, MTs-109-09, TOZ- 55 “Bison”.
In addition, some rifles (MTs-5-26, MTs-30-02) use 6.5 mm cartridges for sporting rifles to shoot at the Running Deer target. In the past, other hunting cartridges for rifled weapons were also produced, for example, the 9×66 cartridge for one of the modifications of the “Elk” carbine.
Use of live ammunition in rifled hunting weapons.
In addition to special hunting cartridges, rifled hunting weapons often use live ammunition similar to them (7.62×39, 7.62×53). Live ammunition is equipped with shell bullets that have a high speed, but a weaker stopping effect than semi-shell bullets of expansive action.
Live ammunition is available in various modifications, including tracer and armor-piercing incendiary bullets, which should not be used in hunting. Cartridges with a tracer bullet differ in the head part, painted in green, and armor-piercing incendiary in black with a red belt.
Many more types of different rifle cartridges are manufactured abroad, their total number is close to 200. In different countries, cartridges of both small (from 4.32) and very large (up to 15.24) calibers are used, although the most common calibers are 5.6 22.214.171.124.
Remington-Peters, Winchester Western (USA), Dynamite-Nobel (Germany), Norma (Sweden) and others specialize in the production of cartridges for hunting rifles.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..