With the seemingly identical concepts of verification and shooting, there are nevertheless significant differences between them. Testing reveals the characteristics of a gun battle. Therefore, it is carried out with standard cartridges, at a standard distance. As a result of the check, the hunter determines various indicators (constancy, accuracy, accuracy, etc.) of his gun.
The sighting is carried out with the expectation of a specific hunt with already identified indicators of the battle of the gun with standard cartridges (during the check). The shooting is carried out in conditions close to the conditions of the hunt, and reveals the quality of the battle of a gun with cartridges equipped for a given hunt.
The difference between checking the shotgun battle shot and its shooting.
Checking and shooting of a shotgun with a shotgun, targets, accuracy and accuracy of the battle, assessment of the possibility of defeat of game.
Cartridges for checking and shooting guns should be equipped with special care to minimize the inconstancy of battle associated with differences in their equipment. Shooting is carried out in a quiet, preferably cloudy weather from the stop to minimize errors when aiming. From each barrel several shots should be fired. Usually shoot a series of 6 or 11 shots. This allows you to identify and weed out “wild” shots that have abnormal indicators.
Naturally, the shooting should be conducted in a place where the possibility of accidentally finding people or pets on the line of fire is excluded. To test the battle of the gun, they use a centered target, the most successful version of which was developed by A.A. Grain. The Zernov target is a circle with a diameter of 80 cm, divided
into 5 zones with radii of circles of 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 cm.
The target area is 50.24 square meters. dm, and the area of the zones, respectively, 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 sq. dm. Each zone is divided into shares (fields) with an area of 0.5 square dm, in the 1st zone – 4 shares, in the 2nd – 12, in the 3rd – 20, etc. In the center of the target is an apple – a black circle with a diameter of 8 cm with a white circle, with a diameter of 4 cm in the center of the diameter. For the convenience of aiming up and down from the apple to the intersection with the circumference of the 1st zone, dark stripes.
Also used are stodolny targets with a diameter of 75 cm with an area of 44.18 square dm (the area of one fraction of 0.44 square dm). Gun shooting is more convenient with a sixteen-target. Its diameter is also 75 cm, an area of 44.18 square dm, an area of one share of 2.76 square dm. With the help of the stodolny target during verification, the main characteristics of the battle of a hunting rifle are determined:
It is characterized by the average deviation of the scree centers from the center of the target (aiming point) of each series of shots from each barrel of the gun. The accuracy of the gun battle is determined by the degree of combination of the midpoint of the centers of the scree of the shotgun shell with the aiming point. According to GOST 1840679, the deviation of the center of the shotgun scree from the aiming point when firing from 35 meters should not exceed: up – 150 mm, down – 50 mm, left and right – 75 mm. The difference between the centers of the talus of the barrel of a double-barreled shotgun should not exceed 150 mm.
Accuracy of battle.
It is determined by the number of pellets that hit the target, or the ratio of the number of pellets that hit the target to their total number in the projectile.
It is determined by the number of affected fields of the target. The more fields are affected by at least one pellet, the more uniform the scree.
Thickening to the center.
It is characterized by the ratio of the number of grains falling into the 1st and 2nd zones to the number of grains falling into the 5th zone multiplied by a correction factor of 2.25.
Constancy of battle.
It is determined by comparing each shot of the series by accuracy, uniformity of scree and thickening towards the center. The constancy of the battle is considered excellent if the difference in battle is less than 10%, very good – up to 15%, good – up to 20%, satisfactory – up to 25%.
In addition, the indicators necessary for shooting a gun are determined using the same target: the density of scree in the zone, determined separately for each zone by dividing the number of pellets that fell into the zone by its area, and the nature of the scree in the zone, determined by the number of fields in the zone affected by shot.
Determining the center of shot scree in determining the accuracy of a hunting rifle battle.
When determining the accuracy of the battle, it is necessary to be able to determine the center of the shot scree. Its determination on the target is carried out in one of the following ways:
1. Graphic design.
2. Overlaying the target mesh on the scree.
The first method is convenient only when shooting large shots. Its essence boils down to the following: on the target in the place of the greatest concentration of holes, two horizontal lines mark the area, which includes 50% of the grains of the entire projectile. Then the same area is marked by two vertical lines, as a result a rectangle is outlined on the target. The intersection of its diagonals will be the center of the scree.
The first and third methods are similar, with the only difference being that holes are not counted, and a rectangle is drawn by eye so that the main accumulation of grains is inside it. In the second method, a grid of wire or drawn on tracing paper is superimposed on the target holes, so that the main thickening of the holes is covered with it. The center of the grid in this case coincides with the center of the scree.
In some cases, a “wild” shot can be fired, the indicators of which are very different (in one direction or another) from others. Usually it is detected by a simple examination of the targets, but if the hunter is not confident in himself, then the following calculations should be carried out. First, identify the average number of hits in the target (the total number of pellets hit is divided by the number of targets), and then compare this indicator with the test shot.
If the difference exceeds 25%, the shot is considered “wild” and its results are not included in the calculations. It is better not to use a gun that gives such shots regularly (with uniform cartridges), as the constancy of the battle is unsatisfactory.
Counting the number of pellets in a cartridge when determining the accuracy and accuracy of a hunting rifle battle.
When determining the accuracy and accuracy of the battle, you need to know the number of pellets in the shell. To do this, you can use a special table. It should be remembered that, ceteris paribus, a soft fraction gives less accuracy than a hard fraction, usually the difference is 20-25%. In addition, accuracy depends on air temperature..
When the temperature decreases by 1 degree compared to normal (12.5 degrees), the number of grains that hit the target decreases by about 0.25%, and when they increase, it increases by the same amount. This pattern applies to cartridges charged with smoky gunpowder, smokeless obeys it only in the temperature range from -10 ° C to +22 degrees.
The number of pellets in shells of a certain mass.
Determination of the sharpness of the battle of a hunting rifle.
Sharpness, one of the most important indicators of battle, is determined without the help of targets. The sharpness depends on the flight speed of the shot; to determine it accurately, special equipment is needed, but you can approximately do this by shooting at dry-pine or field boards. If the fraction enters the boards at four of its diameters, then the sharpness of the battle is excellent, if three is good, two is satisfactory.
If the shot enters the board to a deeper depth – the sharpness is poor, therefore, it is necessary to increase the flight speed of the shot, which is achieved either by increasing the charge of the powder, or by reducing the mass of the shot shell, or by changing the type of wad.
Sighting of a hunting rifle.
The battle of the gun is now checked at the factories during its manufacture, and its performance is indicated in the passport. Nevertheless, the hunter should shoot at least a small batch of cartridges to check it. The main attention should be paid to sighting. The targeting is carried out on the target (one hundred or sixteen-sided) or on a blank sheet of paper, on which the target’s contour is then superimposed so that its center coincides with the center of the shot scree.
After firing shots, you can begin to process their results to make certain decisions. Since the main goal in the hunt is to hunt for an object, it is advisable to use the shooting to find out how likely it is to defeat game with these cartridges from the distance of the intended (most likely) shot. For this, in addition to the above calculations, use the table of the affected area of the carcass proposed by Zernov and derived from it calculations of slaughter density of talus per 1 square. dm.
Affected carcass area.
For a specific example, we analyze the processing of the results of a shot from a gun. So, the sighting is carried out before the spring woodcock hunting. The shot was fired from 12-gauge weapons, from a barrel with a 1 mm muzzle narrowing from a distance of 30 meters at a temperature of plus 10 degrees on a sheet of paper, followed by the imposition of a sixteen-pin target. A portion of gunpowder – 2.2 g, the mass of the shell of the fraction No. 8 – 34 g.
When the target was applied to the sheet and the center of the shot scree was combined with the center of the target, it turned out that 274 grains were distributed in its field, distributed as follows.
Distribution of hits of pellets in the parsed example.
First, we determine the accuracy of the gun battle with this cartridge. To do this, we determine from the table the number of grains in the shell of a given mass – 364, and then we find the desired value (274: 364&# 215; 100%). It turns out about 75%, that is, the accuracy of the battle is very high. Even taking into account the fact that the shooting was conducted from a distance less than the standard. Such accuracy is very good for a given distance and probably guarantees a good shot and a slightly greater distance.
However, when firing at close range (15-20 meters), a miss is very likely, and when hit, the bird will be very broken by a fraction. The degree of thickening of shot scree to the center of the target connects the rate of evaluation of the battle of the gun and the method of equipping cartridges. To determine this indicator by a sixteen-target, it is necessary to multiply the number of holes in the inner circle (83) by 3 and divide by the number of holes in the outer ring (191).
We get 1.3. It also shows that the optimal (thickening degree = 1) for a given cartridge will be a greater distance than the one with which this shot was fired. When shooting at 30 meters, for the best thickening, slightly increase the mass of the shell or reduce the weight of gunpowder.
The uniformity of shot scree is determined separately for the inner circle and the outer ring. When working with a sixteen-target target, it is not determined as described above for the Zernov target. To do this, divide the number of holes in the share with the best performance by the number of holes in the share with the worst performance.
For our inner circle, in our case the ratio is 1.4: 1 (25:18), for the outer ring it is 2.4: 1 (22: 9). In both cases, the uniformity of the scree is quite acceptable, although ideal would be 1: 1, which in practice is almost never observed. In this case, there is also the opportunity to shoot at a greater distance, although the reserve is not so large, since “windows” have already been outlined in the outer ring — slightly affected areas of the target.
Assessment of the possibility of hitting game anywhere in the target.
The possibility of hitting game (woodcock) anywhere in the target is evaluated as follows. According to the table, the carcass area is determined – 70 sq.cm. This area corresponds to approximately 25% of the area of the share (70: 276×100%). 3 pellets are enough to defeat a woodcock, although it will be better if 4-5 hits. So, in order to hit the prey, it is necessary that at least 12 grains (34), and better – 16, fall into each share.
For reliable defeat of game, due to the unevenness of shot scree, in each lobe of the target, it is necessary to have a slightly higher hit density. The entire target area should be hit by a minimum of 192 grains (1216), and preferably 256 grains (1616). In the considered case, 274 grains hit the target, i.e. accuracy is quite sufficient.
However, 6 lobes are affected by a fraction less than optimal, and 2 of them are less than what is needed for woodcock mining. This suggests that, in general, the cartridges are quite suitable for this hunt, but there are reserves for their best equipment – the uniformity of the scree should be somewhat improved. In this case, it is probably necessary to slightly increase the mass of the projectile with a given charge of powder.
Change in hunting rifle combat when temperature drops.
You should also check what happens if the temperature changes, for example, by the evening it drops to 0 degrees. As mentioned above, with a decrease in temperature by a degree of accuracy decreases by 0.25%. So, when it decreases by 10 degrees, we get 2.5%, i.e. about 7 pellets will fall into the target than during shooting at a temperature of plus 10 degrees.
This number, although not strong, but will reduce the likelihood of defeat game. This is another argument in favor of increasing the mass of the shell. Naturally, the results of the shooting are determined not by one shot, but by a series, and conclusions are made based on the processing of averaged data.
Shooting a hunting rifle in another way.
Zeroing can be done differently. Make a clean sheet of paper shot from a distance needed for shooting, and then put transparent profiles of those animals that are supposed to be hunted on different sections of it and see how many grains fell into the “carcass”. If less than three – accuracy should be increased, if more than five – reduce.
With a large difference in hits in different parts of the field, the uniformity of the scree should be improved by changing the weight of gunpowder and shot or the method of equipping the cartridge. When shooting a gun with buckshot, it is necessary to achieve (when firing from 35 meters) the following results: at least 75% of the number of buckshots should fall into a circle with a diameter of 75 cm.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..