When firing a rifled weapon, factory ammunition cartridges are almost always used. Combat rifled weapons chambered for 5.6 mm annular ignition is checked at a distance of 50 meters, the rest of the rifled weapons at a distance of 100 meters.
Check and sighting of rifled weapons and smoothbore guns with a bullet, distance, determination of the midpoint of hit.
The diameter of the dispersion of bullets caliber 5.6 mm annular ignition is 30-40 mm (depending on the category of cartridges). The cross-section of the dispersion of bullets of other types at a test distance (100 meters) and at large distances is shown in the table below.
With the most successful shooting, the bullets do not fall into the same place – the holes on the target occupy a certain area, called the dispersion area. In the center of this area is the midpoint of impact (STP) or the center of dispersion. With a large number of shots, the average point of impact is similar to how the center of the scree is determined during a shot shot.
If there were not enough shots, then the average point of impact is determined as follows: any two holes are connected by a segment and this segment is divided in half, then the division point is connected with the third hole and the resulting segment is divided into three parts. The new division point closest to the first, and there will be STP of three shots.
If four shots are fired, then the STP of three shots is connected to the fourth hole and the resulting segment is divided into four parts. Similarly, the STP is determined for a larger number of shots.
The diameter of the dispersion of bullets of various rounds for rifled weapons.
When checking weapons, it is determined how large is the deviation of the mid-point of impact from the aiming point. When sighting, this deviation should be eliminated or, at least, minimized by moving the sight. If the STP is to the left of the aiming point, then the sight needs to be moved to the right (front sight – to the left), if the STP is to the left (front sight – to the right), if the STP is higher – lower (front – raise), if the STP is lower – raise (front – lower).
Determination of the midpoint of the hit when shooting rifles.
As a rule, you have to change the position of the sight both vertically and horizontally. The magnitude of the displacement of the sight is related to the magnitude of the deviation of the STP from the aiming point in proportion to how the length of the sighting line and the firing distance are related.
Shooting is conducted from 100 meters, the length of the sighting line is 80 cm. The STP is 20 cm to the right of the center of the target and 10 cm higher. The ratio of the distance to the length of the sighting line is 125 (10000: 80), therefore, the shift of the sight to the left and down should be 125 times smaller than the deviation of the STP from the center of the target, respectively, 1.6 mm (20: 125) and 0, 8 mm (10: 125).
Having shot rifled weapons at any distance (for example, 150 meters), you should check how the bullets go down at distances of shorter (80-100 meters) and large (200, 250, 300 meters), and determine what amendments need to be made when shooting at these distances. If it is easy to change the height of the sight of a gun, then it must be noted what its height corresponds to what distance, so that it is possible to make corrections in hunting when shooting.
Check and sighting rifled weapons with a telescopic sight.
When shooting a rifled weapon with a telescopic sight, it is first rigidly fixed and an open sight is aimed at the target, then the crosshair of the optical sight is pointed at the same place and a shot is fired. If the point of impact does not coincide with the aiming point, then the weapon should be fixed in this position, and then the crosshairs of the optical sight should be shifted from the aiming point to the point of impact, without changing the position of the weapon, and firing control shots.
When shooting at other distances, the vertical correction drum is rotated so that the crosshairs are shifted to a new hit point, and they remember what division the vertical correction drum should be set when shooting at a given distance.
When detaching an optical sight and installing it backwards before arming, it is advisable to make an adjustment before hunting, and if this is not possible, check the optical sight in the open, achieving their coincidence, but without touching the drums.
The effect on the flight of a bullet of lowering temperature and side wind.
It should be remembered that some meteorological indicators significantly affect the flight of a bullet. So, lowering the temperature shifts the STP down, which is especially noticeable when firing from a small-caliber rifle with rimfire cartridges. This weapon is better to shoot for different seasons..
Strongly affects the flight of a bullet crosswind. Deviation of a bullet in the wind can reach 12 meters at a great distance. Therefore, the hunter should shoot rifled weapons with a crosswind of different strengths and memorize (write down) the results obtained in order to make adjustments for the wind when hunting.
Checking and shooting smooth-bore guns bullet, assessing the quality of the battle smooth-bore gun bullet.
A shotgun bullet should be shot especially carefully. The test shows a shotgun battle from 35 meters at a temperature of 15-20 degrees. As a result, it turns out where the bullets lie in relation to the aiming point, what are the accuracy and consistency of the battle.
Bullet gun shooting is conducted from a distance of 50 meters. But after it you also need to check how the bullets go when firing from a distance of 35 and 10 meters. You need to shoot a series of cartridges of at least 3 pcs. (better than 5). The results are compared with the data in the table below..
Assessment of the quality of the battle of a smoothbore gun.
In general, it can be said that a smoothbore gun is well shot by a bullet if at 50 meters the bullets fit in a circle with a diameter of 10-15 cm. In addition, as a result of shooting, you should maximize the approximation of the midpoint of the hit to the aiming point.
When fired by a bullet, its energy is of great importance, with which slaughter is directly related. It is desirable that it be maximum. However, with too large samples of gunpowder (this gives a high speed and, consequently, energy), the accuracy drops greatly. So you should look for the best option. With a mass of 12-caliber bullets 32-35 g, it is better to shoot a shotgun with ammunition with charges of gunpowder Sokol 2.3-2.5 g.
Some bullets (such as Mayer) work best with even lower charge masses. From shotguns with a “paradox” drill, shooting is carried out at a greater distance – 80-100 meters.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..