The choice of a place for building a shelter must be done very carefully. It is necessary to observe a number of requirements for the parking place. These are: the presence of drinking water and fuel for a fire in the immediate vicinity of the camp, protection from the sudden rise of water in the river, the avalanche, rockfall, etc..
Choosing a place for the device and equipment of temporary and permanent shelters and shelters.
When choosing a place for shelter, much attention should be paid to protection from blood-sucking insects, wind blowing, lack of shade and other factors affecting normal rest and safety are also important. The source of water can be any fresh water reservoir from which water is taken with great care. The amount of fuel needed for a bonfire depends, first of all, on the natural zone in which you are located and, accordingly, the species composition of the vegetation.
Wind protection is very relevant in open areas and mountain valleys. Such protection is created by bushes, trees, hillsides, terraces, cliffs, rocks, large stones. This is especially important when parking without shelter, hut, canopy, caves. Any type of shelter is placed back to the prevailing wind. With variable winds, the back of the shelter should face the strongest wind. In the mountains, the choice of a place of refuge should be based on the fact that the wind blows down the valleys at night and upwards during the day. With an abundance of blood-sucking insects, mosquitoes, midges, gadfly and the like, everything should be done the other way around.
The shelter is equipped not in thickets of bushes or grass, but in an open area where the wind will drive insects away. It should be borne in mind that at night a cold wind blows from the mouths of small rivers, which drives insects away. Parking under a steep mountain slope or cliff, on the one hand, protects from the wind, and on the other, is a serious danger due to the possibility of falling stones, landslides and avalanches.
On the banks of rivers, one should also be afraid of a sudden rise in water level due to heavy rains or prolonged rains and not to put shelter on a very low bank near the water itself. Small hollows and troughs during even small rains quickly fill with water, and therefore it is better to set up a temporary or permanent camp on a gentle slope, on a tubercle or flat terrace. During rain, around the shelter, dig a groove 5-8 cm deep from the side of the influx of water and deepen it to the opposite side. This groove is best done in advance, just in case, even in the absence of rain.
In the desert, the choice of a place for shelter must be carried out on the areas most covered by vegetation, they protect the sands from dispersion. In the tundra, marshy and mossy forests, humid tropical forests, on wet river floodplains and in mangroves, it is necessary to choose the most dry place not only for building a shelter, but also for a fire. In a very damp place, a platform is made of branches or poles, and its thickness (height) depends on the degree of soil moisture. You can make such a platform on the lower, large fork of the tree, and above it a canopy of bark or branches.
Moss, especially sphagnum, contains a lot of moisture and, when pressed, releases it in large quantities. Much drier is the white lichen lichen (deer moss). Having made a choice of a parking place, it must be cleaned of protruding stones, branches, excrement of wild animals. All types of shelters are usually placed against the fire on the windward side, with a hole from the wind to the fire.
Types of simple shelters and shelters.
In the absence of a tent, in the forest you can quickly make a canopy for an overnight stay like a booth. Two stake with forks are driven in front of the bonfire, a third stake is placed on them and several poles are leaned against it at an angle of 45 degrees. A roof is placed on these rafters, the type of which depends on the natural zone in which the shelter is built. In the taiga, this is leaf bark, larch or spruce bark (the latter is worse), and in the tropics palm leaves and the like. In the tropics it is advisable to use bamboo instead of poles.
To peel the bark from the tree, make deep vertical cuts on it through the bark to the wood at a distance of 0.5 meters from each other, meaning the trees are quite thick in diameter, 2 meters or more in length. Above and below, these strips are cut by large teeth of 10-20 cm across. Then the bark is peeled off with a chip or knife. It must be borne in mind that the bark easily peels off living trees in the first half of summer. If the booth is built for a short time, then you can cover it with small branches of conifers, imposed like tiles. Branches should be fixed with knots to the transverse poles superimposed on the rafters. Palm leaves, deciduous tree branches are also attached..
Branches and bark can be crushed from above by several horizontal poles so that they are not blown away by the wind. The sides of the canopy can be closed with vertical or inclined walls from branches braided around the stakes, or put them on inclined poles. Huts and canopies can be made both gable and conical, but they are good only in warm weather or in the presence of a sleeping bag and of course, in the absence of other possibilities. The most primitive shelter can be made very quickly by using a large stake or a dry tree, laying it on a large fork in the tree. Sticks are attached to the stake, their lower ends are driven into the ground, and on the sticks they are laid like tiles, spruce or other branches.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.