Activities that contribute to the successful survival and rescue of pilots after an aircraft accident can be divided into three groups. The first group includes theoretical and practical exercises, psychophysiological preparation of pilots for survival and rescue. The second group of events includes the actions of the pilot while leaving the aircraft. The third group includes the activities of the pilot in an autonomous existence.
Classes and psychophysiological preparation of pilots for survival and rescue, the actions of the pilot during the departure of the aircraft.
In the process of conducting theoretical studies, pilots should receive information on the environmental actors, the characteristics of their impact on the human body, actions during ejection and forced landing (splashdown). The main goal of practical training is to develop skills to preserve life and performance in extreme conditions of existence. Training should be as close as possible to survival conditions..
on ground ejection simulators, in pressure chambers, in the water areas of water pools and during parachute jumps.
Development of automatism of motor skills in accuracy and sequence of actions with emergency drives and a parachute exhaust ring.
Securing techniques for quickly and correctly accepting a manufacturing pose in an ejection chair.
Developing parachute landing skills under various conditions.
The rules for the provision of self and mutual assistance using the first aid kit NAZ and improvised means.
Study of the specifics of survival in various climatogeographic regions.
In the process of training, pilots should develop professional preparedness for survival. This concept includes not only knowledge and skill, but also psychological preparedness for action in the event of aviation incidents and in adverse climatic and geographical regions.
Training of the latter quality is of particular relevance, since the psychological inadequacy of pilots in aviation incidents more often occurs with an insufficient level of theoretical and psychophysiological preparedness.
Actions of pilots when leaving the aircraft in the event of an accident or disaster.
In all emergency cases that threaten flight safety, the pilot is obliged to give the “I will disaster” signal with the simultaneous inclusion of the “Disaster” signal, to bring the aircraft to the safe area for the population and landing of crew members, if possible. The main way to leave an aircraft in modern military aviation is by ejection, when a pilot is pushed out of the cockpit using a firing mechanism.
The development of technology has contributed to the development of ever more advanced ejection systems and installations. Most often used ejection seats. They are the pilot’s workplace in the cockpit of the aircraft and a means of rescue in the event of an emergency. After the pilot makes the decision to eject, it is very important to fix the position of the body when the spine is parallel to the thrust vector applied to the seat.
With the right manufacturing position, when the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine is straightened, the most even distribution of the load on the individual segments of the spine occurs. In this case, shock overloads of 18–20 units and a duration of 0.15–0.3 seconds, acting in the “head-pelvis” direction, subject to all the rules for ejection, do not cause damage to the spine.
When lowering by parachute, the pilot must carefully inspect the area, paying attention to the location of settlements, roads, rivers, lakes, gorges, and when launching, prepare the craft for use and assess the location of ships, boats, islands, coast. It is imperative that you land correctly, disconnect yourself from the parachute suspension system on time, and climb into the boat after splashing..
Based on materials from the book Physiological Foundations of Human Life under Extreme Conditions.
V. S. Novikov, S. I. Soroko.