A geographical map of various scales is a reduced generalized image of the earth’s surface on a plane, built in a certain cartographic projection. According to the content, geographical maps are divided into general geographical and special (thematic).
Classification and purpose of topographic maps, city plans and special maps.
On general geographical maps, all the basic elements of the area are depicted with completeness, depending on the scale of the map, without any particular ones being highlighted. On special (thematic) maps, some elements of the terrain are displayed with greater detail or special data is plotted that are not shown on general geographical maps. Special maps include historical, economic, political and administrative, hydrological, geological, road and other.
Topographic maps – General geographic maps of scale 1: 1 000 000 and larger, detailing the area. They are published in separate sheets of specific sizes and scales..
The dimensions of the map sheet in kilometers mean: the first number is the length from north to south, this size is almost constant for any latitude. The second number is the length from east to west, this size gradually decreases with increasing latitude. For maps with scales of 1:25 000 – 1: 200 000, the sides of the frame are from 36.86 cm at the equator to 37.14 cm at a latitude of 60 degrees, and the lower (south) side is from 55.66 cm at the equator to 27, 9 cm at a latitude of 60 degrees.
Topographic Map Classification.
Topographic maps are used both for solving national economic problems and for the needs of the country’s defense. Topographic maps used by the troops are divided into large-scale (1:25 000, 1:50 000), medium-scale (1: 100 000, 1: 200 000) and small-scale (1: 500 000, 1: 1 000 000).
Topographic map assignment.
Topographic maps serve as the main source of local area information and are used to study it, determine distances and areas, directional angles, coordinates of various objects, and solve other measurement problems. They are widely used in command and control, as well as the basis for combat graphic documents and special maps.
Topographic maps (mainly maps of the scales of 1: 100,000 and 1: 200,000) are the main means of orientation on the march and in battle. Map scale 1:25 000 Intended for a detailed study of individual sections of the terrain (when crossing water barriers, landing and in other cases), performing accurate measurements, as well as for calculations in the construction of military engineering structures and military facilities.
Maps of scales of 1:50 000 and 1: 100 000 They are intended for a detailed study of the terrain and assessment of its tactical properties during the planning and preparation of combat operations, command and control of troops in battle, target designation and orientation on the battlefield, determination of the coordinates of firing (starting) positions, reconnaissance equipment, targets, and performing the necessary measurements and calculations.
Map scale 1: 200 000 intended for the study and assessment of the terrain in the planning and preparation of military operations of all branches of the armed forces, command and control of troops in an operation (battle), planning the movement of troops and orientation on the ground during the march.
Maps of scales 1: 500 000 and 1: 1 000 000 intended for the study and assessment of the general nature of the area in the preparation and conduct of operations, as well as used by aviation as flight maps.
City plans and special maps.
Plan (topographic)– An image of a small area or terrain object on paper. Plans are usually drawn up on a large scale. The terrain on them is characterized in more detail than on maps of the appropriate scale..
City plans (large urban-type settlements, railway junctions) are created on a scale of 1:10 000 and 1:25 000. They are intended for a detailed study of cities and their closest approaches, orientation and target designation, command and control of troops during the battle for the city, and for accurate measurements and calculations.
On the city plan, data are placed not only on ground but also underground objects (metro, sewage, communication collectors, etc.), street names are indicated (directly on the plan, as well as a list on the fields with their places in squares of a kilometer grid) , a list of the most important objects, as well as a certificate characterizing this item economically and militarily. City plans are created in the Gauss projection and correspond in accuracy to topographic maps of the same scale..
Special cards used by staffs and troops are created well in advance in peacetime or during preparation and during hostilities. Special maps produced in advance include geographic, blank, aeronautical, maps of communication lines, water lines, relief, etc..
Special maps produced during preparation and during the war are intended for a detailed study of the terrain and its individual elements for a given period of time. These include maps of changes in the area in the area of a nuclear explosion, maps of river sections, mountain passages and passes, flood zones, water sources, etc..
Geographical maps in rectangular frames.
They are created on a scale of 1: 500 000, 1: 1 000 000, 1: 2 500 000, 1: 5 000 000, 1:10 000 000 and are intended to study the terrain of military theaters, certain areas and operational areas. Cards have standard sheet sizes (80 in the inner frame&# 215; 90 cm). The total load of the content of geographic maps of scales of 1: 500,000 and 1: 1,000,000 is approximately 30% less than topographic maps of corresponding scales.
Intended for the production of information, combat and reconnaissance documents. In terms of content, they are copies of geographic or topographic maps of the appropriate scale, but are printed with a reduced number of colors or one paint of weakened tones.
Intended for the preparation and execution of aviation flights. Cartographic projections and scale of maps, their contents and design meet the requirements of air navigation.
Maps of communication lines of scale 1: 500 000 and road maps of scale 1: 1 000 000.
Intended for planning and implementing the movement of troops and the organization of military transport. They contain more detailed technical and operational characteristics of the road network compared to topographic maps of the appropriate scale..
Water Boundary Maps.
Intended for a detailed study of the rivers and approaches to them. They are compiled on the basis of topographic maps of scales 1: 100,000 and 1: 200,000. Photographs of large bridges, dams and other water bodies are placed on the maps..
They are made, as a rule, for mountainous areas on a scale of 1: 500,000 and 1: 1 000 000. They are intended for the study and assessment of the terrain when planning combat operations of troops. The content of the relief maps is the same as the topographic maps of the corresponding scale, but the relief on them is given in volume, while the vertical scale is always larger than the horizontal.
Maps of Terrain Changes in Nuclear Explosion Areas.
They are topographic maps on a scale of 1: 100,000 and 1: 200,000, which are imprinted with data characterizing the changes in the terrain (destroyed settlements, debris in forests, flooded and swampy areas, etc.).
Maps of river sections.
Intended for a detailed study and assessment of the terrain of areas designated for crossing rivers. They are published by imprinting additional information about a section of a river in print or blank prints of a topographic map on a scale of 1:25 000 or 1:50 000.
Maps of mountain passes and passes (scales 1:50 000 or 1: 100 000).
Intended for a detailed study of mountainous terrain and the selection of the most convenient ways to overcome mountain systems or to organize their defense. The maps give detailed characteristics of passes and passes.
Flood zone maps.
Designed to inform troops and staffs about the possible or actual consequences of the destruction of hydraulic structures. They are published on a scale of 1:50 000-1: 200 000 by imprinting the symbol of the flood areas in circulation or blank prints of topographic maps.
Maps of water sources.
They are intended for studying water sources, planning and organizing water supply for troops in desert and other water-poor areas. They are published by imprinting quantitative and qualitative data on water sources into circulation prints of a topographic map on a scale of 1: 100 000 or 1: 200 000.
These are special maps of the seas and oceans. The most important and most common are navigational charts for navigating ships. Contents of them: bottom topography depicted by isobaths and elevations, soil characteristics, coastal outline and characteristics, relief and outstanding landmarks on the coast, sea routes, dangers for swimming (shallows, reefs, rocks, breakers), navigation signs (lighthouses, guiding signs) , information on magnetic declination, elements of hydrology (currents, tides, ice boundaries).
Sea charts include private charts (scales of 1:25 000–1: 100,000), trip charts (scales of 1: 100,000–1: 500,000), general and overview cards (scales of 1: 500,000 and smaller). The content of marine navigation charts is complemented and explained by the LOCATION.
Designed for driving ships and designing hydraulic structures on rivers. The approximate scale of the maps and the height of the isobath section are indicated in the table. Pilot charts contain detailed information about the coastline, depths, underwater obstacles, navigation signs.
Depths are shown by isobaths and marks. Depth counting is carried out from the water level to the low water. Pilot map used in conjunction with the river.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.