Experience suggests that people are able to tolerate the most severe environmental conditions and is in extreme situations for a long time, and even more than one month without food. But, however, a person who is unaccustomed to such conditions, who got into them for the first time and by chance, is poorly adapted to life in an unfamiliar and often aggressive environment.
The natural environment, its physical and geographical features, time of year are of paramount importance for human life in the conditions of autonomous existence and extreme situations. Actively influencing a person, the natural environment increases or shortens the life of a person in this situation.
3. Extreme situations.
a) vehicle accident in an uninhabited or hard-to-reach area:
car, motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile; while a person or group of people may be in: the polar tundra; mountains; taiga, jungle; the wilderness;
airplane, helicopter; as a result of an emergency landing, a person or group of people may be: in the forest (taiga, jungle); on a steep hillside or mountain plateau; on water (at sea); in uninhabited areas of the tundra; on uninhabited islands; in a desert;
b) a shipwreck, as a result of which a person or group of people may be in the following conditions:
in the open sea (ocean) on a liferaft, in a boat or on a wreck;
sea currents threw an uncontrolled ship or a life-saving tool (raft, dinghy, ship fragment), on which people were on, onto an unfamiliar and uninhabited coast or uninhabited island;
c) getting into the zone of natural disaster caused by:
sandstorm in the desert;
avalanche or mudflow;
While in the disaster area, various unpredictable situations and circumstances may arise:
a person or group found themselves in a zone of volcanic eruption, earthquake, mudflow, a giant landslide or snow avalanche, forest or steppe fire;
the ship got into a severe storm, typhoon, tsunami, which led to a shipwreck;
only one managed to survive during any of the above natural disasters.
d) getting into the zone of local military conflicts:
In this case, an extreme situation occurs when:
a person or group of people managed to escape from captivity and hide for a long time in an unpopulated area (mountains, desert, taiga, jungle, etc.);
there was a need to try to secretly leave the danger zone through uninhabited or difficult terrain.
Encyclopedia of Survival Chernysh I. V.