Today I will talk about water disinfection. This is the most important process, because you know how to use it. But first things first. So, we really need to go. It is a matter of disinfection of various pathogenic microorganisms. I will list the main threats.
The main causes of untreated water poisoning
I think everyone knows what it is. Let me remind you just a few facts. It is uncovered that it is not revealed. Every year, every second person becomes infected with one or other worms. Of course, it’s not a problem. If you are lightweight – you get 500 meters more per day. There are several meters that can reach 20 or more years. Eggs are not far from pastures or watering of animals.
The simplest unicellular. I will give as an example:
Giardia / Gardenia. Flagellated parasites. One of the species is the intestinal lamblia, the causative agent of giardiasis. Parasitic in the small intestine. There is a strong toxic effect on the body. You can get infected here too. Just the frequency of infection, we have 10 times lower. Symptoms – bloating, pain, rumbling, nausea, constipation, alternating with greenish diarrhea.
Cryptosporidia. It is a parasites of the small animal that has been brewing. There are several microscopic worm-like parasites that have been swallowed (often with water), causing gastroenteritis and water. Severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting. In some cases, cryptosporidia can cause parasitic pneumonia, penetrating into the lungs.
Other microorganisms – for example dysenteric amoeba. It can be easy to catch us. The disease has an incubation period. Then there is a pain in the lower abdomen, weakness, fever. The liver is enlarged, often with profuse diarrhea with blood. Cardiovascular system.
Everything is heard every day on TV. 10,000 species are supposedly approaching a million. There are different sizes – from 0.5 mm in size and larger ones to the size of large viruses. Fortunately, only a small fraction of the bacteria is pathogenic. For example, there are up to 1000 species of animals that live with them. The pathogenic bacteria causes a lot of disease, diphtheria, anthrax, syphilis, leprosy, tuberculosis and others.
Also known to all. They are microscopic particles of nucleic acid molecules. Enclosed in a protein shell, able to infect living organisms. I will list only viral hepatitis, polio, rabies, lichen, etc. It can be seen that it is possible to penetrate into the environment. Fortunately, viruses rarely travel by themselves – they usually “stick” to a larger object, such as a bacterium. It is much easier to filter a bacterium. In the area of water, it is dangerous, it is dangerous. However, it’s possible to get rid of the immune system.
Water purification methods
Disinfection of water by boiling Quite is a common way to destroy microorganisms. Celsius kills temperature of 70 degrees a day and more microorganisms within a few minutes. It is usually enough to simply bring the water to a boil. Should I continue to boil water after it boils? It is desirable. And that’s why:
- Some microorganisms die for less than 5-10 minutes. Yes, such microorganisms are rare in our area – therefore, in most cases, the boiling can be neglected. But they meet. Worm, cysts. Therefore, if you really bring it up, then you’re peril and risk. If the water is taken from a highly polluted source, it is longer.
- If you are boiling water above the sea level
- It is worth noting that, say, anthrax spores. Advantages of boiling water for a minimum of 10 minutes, especially when boiling for at least 10 minutes. You can not buy a pot and a fire.
Method of disinfection
- Bringing water to a boil and boiling it takes time – 15 minutes. Sometimes there is no time to wait.
- If you don’t need it, you can’t feel like drinking hot water at all. Cooling down at this temperature will be very, very long.
- It is not always the case that it has been poured into the hydrator. Yes, the backpack will be hot. Have a wait. How to use a heating pad except that.
- Fuel is consumed if you use the burner. Not only does it have to be dragged on it, it also costs money. If you go to the water, you often have to go.
- Firewood, firewoods, rainbows, firewoods, clothes, sparks, water cannons, sometimes unmasking, etc.
- Sometimes you want to drink water. To boil you need to look for a place, stop, get a kettle, etc.
- It is not possible to make a fire. In addition, you can simply be a civilian traveler. You can find out more about how to get water.
- If you are a boiling laundry detergent Well, absolutely undesirable.
This is a method of disinfection during boiling for 15 minutes is 99.99% for all groups, etc.
General conclusion: boiling It is not always the case. It is not a very hot season.
A rather old way of disinfecting water, which is currently slowly falling into disuse. It is clear that there is a possibility that it will be easier to use it (filtering, chlorine-containing tablets, etc.). However, it is still worth it.
Method of using potassium permanganate
Until the water turns a pinkish color. Bright color – dilute. After the cold season, it can be up to 15-30 minutes in the cold season. Potassium permanganate. Firstly, it will cause, secondly, violate the intestinal microflora, resulting in digestive problems for a long time, and thirdly, you can get a lot of fun in overdose. Well, you know. It is true that water can be used for example.
What to do in this situation? Use carbon filter, it is contained in it.
Advantages of the water using potassium permanganate:
- High efficiency.
- Kayne high compactness and carbon filtering.
- It is not a strong oxidizing agent, but it is also not necessary that it destroys bacteria.
- There is a fairly universal thing during the inflammatory processes that can be followed by the inflammatory processes. , to treat the burns and ulcers, to wash the stomach during poisoning.
Dosage: externally, in aqueous solutions for wounds (0.1–0.5%), for rinsing the mouth and throat (0.01–0.1%), for lubricating ulcers and burn surfaces (2–5%), (0.02 -0.1%).
Cons of potassium permanganate
- Water treatment takes considerable time – from 15 minutes to an hour.
- Two-stage process. After treating the water through a carbon filter.
- Sometimes you want to drink water away – based on p. 1 and 2, this scenario does not pass.
- A process tank is required – a kettle, a flask, a hydraulic system – a water tank. However, manganese in this case, he also will not.
- Manganese, I remind you, is a precursor in modern times. It is not a need to take care of yourselves.
- Legislation is different everywhere. I’m not going to be able to keep up with some “Midnight Express 2’ ”.
- A typical lethal dose of potassium permanganate for children is 3 g. This should also be taken into account.
I have a small margin, because I’m a small margin, I’m a small margin. It was a disinfecting, non-potable water, washing drinking containers, etc. As a backup option.
Iodine water purification
Emergency ’—that is, it can be found in every first aid kit.
Iodine is simple – 10-20 drops of 10% water iodine is simple. A smaller dose is acceptable, but may not be sufficiently effective. The amount of iodine is determined visually depending on water pollution. For an hour or more – in the cold season. For more than 10 hours, it is more than a time for the death of lamblia / cryptosporidium. Unfortunately, it is not only useful, but not disgusting to taste. You can get rid of it through the carbon filter, or – less effectively – by adding charcoal to it. It is also a crumble.
Advantages of the method: applicable in an emergency. In essence, it doesn’t differ from expensive branded iodine-containing tablets.
disadvantages: In general, it was indicated that potassium permanganate should be indicated. If necessary, it’s not necessary to do so.
Efficiency: like potassium permanganate, however, cryptosporidia are General conclusion for potassium permanganate. It means that it can be a discomfort.
Peroxide Water Purification
Another one of the popular ways. It is an emergency. Hydrogen peroxide disinfects water from the protozoa (Giardia and cryptosporidia), bacteria, viruses. Method of application: add one Art. spoon (with strong pollution – 2 tablespoons) per liter of water, let stand for about an hour. To accelerate the decomposition of the carbon dioxide to the water. Hydrogen peroxide tablets can be used instead of hydrogen peroxide. Dosage – 2-3 tablets per 1 liter of water. It is a process of acid formation. It is a bit salty taste, it gets to the water. In Ukraine, the urea is a permitted concentration of 2-3 grams per liter.
Advantages and disadvantages of the method – for medicines. Dosing is necessary ‘by eye’. Despite the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, water ’flavor’ flavor. It has been found that there has been a variety of preparations and it has been found in various forms. It is a couple of times. It is worthwhile to look for it. It is a fact that it is a product of protein metabolism and it is excreted in the urine. Hydrogen peroxide, especially when used in various NAs. In the case of inflammatory diseases of the mucous membranes. However, it has been already elevated.
Water &# 8212; just clean!