Cold climate dangers, hypothermia, frostbite, snow blindness, carbon monoxide poisoning, carbon monoxide, trench foot, treatment in extreme and emergency situations.

Low temperatures pose a threat not only in the polar zones. Long stays in cold climates are dangerous everywhere. Take precautions against all such conditions.. 

Cold climate hazards, hypothermia, frostbite, snow blindness, carbon monoxide poisoning, carbon monoxide, trench foot, treatment in extreme and emergency situations.

Hypothermia, this word refers to a state where the body cannot produce heat faster than it loses and the temperature drops below normal. This condition occurs under the influence of wind, rain and low temperatures, and is also caused by: exhaustion, inadequate clothing, shelter, food, knowledge and training.

body so that its ability to generate heat from the inside returns. The foil coating will reflect heat and help care for victims at temperatures below zero. If heat is lost quickly warm yourself quickly. If heat is lost slowly warm up slowly..

Signs of frostbite.

Frostbite (frostbite) occurs when the skin and body freeze, when the temperature drops to -1 degree. All exposed parts of the body and areas farthest from the heart are exposed to frostbite, in which the blood circulation is the weakest: hands, feet, nose, ears and face. Frostbite can be light or heavy, depending on the length of stay in the cold. The first signs are often tingling of the skin when it begins to freeze. Then, white spots like wax appear on it, which lose their sensitivity, and later harden and become rough.

Strong pain, swelling, redness occur, and finally, blisters form before necrosis and tissue rejection, which is the final stage of the cold process. Light degree of frostbite: affects only the skin. For treatment, warm the affected area. Put your hands under your arms or between your legs. Place your feet on a friend’s stomach. The process of warming the frostbitten place will be painful. Constantly monitor the appearance of frostbitten areas both at home and at partners. Begin at the first sign of skin whitening. Knead your face muscles with grimacing to resist the effects of the cold.

Prevention of deep frostbite.

A much more serious problem. Protect the affected area from further cold damage. Do not rub with snow. Do not warm by open flame. The best way to slowly warm the affected area with warm water at a temperature of about 28-28.5 degrees is the temperature that your elbow can comfortably carry. If the water is too hot, cool it to the desired level and apply on affected areas of the body.

Symptoms of deep frostbite.

Blisters can form that become infected and turn into ulcers. Frostbite tissue turns gray, then blackens, dies and finally is torn away. Do not open the blisters and in no case rub the affected area. Severe pain indicates that the process of heating a cold place is too fast. Use only live heat.

Snow blindness.

Temporary form of blindness caused by the high intensity and concentration of sunlight, which are reflected from a snow or ice surface, as well as from ice crystals in the clouds. It most often affects when the sun is high, but this can happen without direct sunlight in cloudy weather in the polar and mountainous regions. Symptoms: at first the eyes become too sensitive to shine. The outer shell of the eyes becomes pink and gradually turns red.

If no measures are taken at this time, then a sensation of cold sand appears in the eyes. Treatment: Move to a dark place and blindfold. Heat intensifies pain, so put a soothing, cool, moistened tissue on your forehead. Over time, the condition is corrected independently. In the future, protect your eyes with sun glasses and charcoal the skin under the eyes to reduce the brightness of the light entering the eyes.

Carbon monoxide poisoning.

This danger is the result of incomplete combustion of fuel in a poorly ventilated room, which may be the result of too active a fight against drafts. All types of bonfires and hearths represent a potential source of this threat when used in a confined space without adequate access to fresh air. The accumulating carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide, is colorless and odorless, therefore difficult to detect. May cause mild headache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, or even vomiting, but this may not be, and immediately loss of consciousness.

If poisoning is not detected in time, death may occur. Treatment: very simple, and the warning is even simpler fresh air and ventilation. If you are alone, then there is no one to treat you, so ensure that the conditions for the accumulation of carbon monoxide are not possible. Move the victim to fresh air and make him breathe evenly and measuredly. If he is unconscious and does not breathe, do artificial respiration. Provide the patient warmth and ventilate the shelter.

Trench foot.

This happens if the legs are in water for a long time or in a frozen and damp state. Tight shoes speed up the process. This is a serious condition, and it begins faster with exhaustion, cold, and lack of food, drink, or sleep. Prevent the occurrence of a trench foot by keeping your feet dry. Wear shoes of your size, exercise your feet and toes, and regularly inspect your feet.

Symptoms: legs as if pricking needles. There comes numbness, alternating with pain. On examination, redness with swelling and blisters is detected. Treatment: dry your legs, but do not rub them and do not damage the blisters. Lift the feet and cover. Do not apply artificial heat, do not massage. The cure is peace and warmth..

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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