Marine collective rescue equipment includes lifeboats, inflatable and hard liferafts, lifeboats. Typical capacity of lifeboats from 12 to 90, in some cases up to 145 people.
Collective and individual life-saving equipment for ships, boats, rafts, bibs, lifebuoys.
Marine lifeboats must meet all the requirements of the Maritime Register. To maintain positive buoyancy when completely flooded, to have an engine and auxiliary oars, to be painted in orange, to have a full set of rescue equipment, etc. Boats are launched by davits.
and so forth.
Open boats are driven by the engine or manually by the passengers themselves by means of a crank mechanism. All open boats have awnings made of two-layer (with an air gap) waterproof material, which protects passengers from the effects of cold and weather. Rescue rails with wooden or plastic handles are stretched along the sides of the boat, which can be grabbed by a person in the water.
Closed ship boats are made of fiberglass or metal alloys. The length of the 66 local lifeboat is 8.5 meters, and the largest width is 3.05 meters, the height from the bottom to the ceiling of the hard awning is 2.35 meters. The fuel reserve is designed for 24 hours of continuous operation. When capsizing, the boat returns to its normal position on its own. In order to avoid injuries during a heavy storm, passengers must fasten their seats with special safety belts. Reception of passengers in the boat (including those injured on a stretcher) is carried out through special hatches and from the water. In addition to those described, there are enclosed ship boats of smaller capacity, as well as special ones, for example, tank boats.
Ship rafts are most often used on river fleet vessels. The shell of hard rafts is made of fiberglass or aluminum-magnesium alloy. The buoyancy chambers are divided into isolated compartments, which are filled with foam inside, which allows the raft to stay on the surface of the water even if the shell is damaged. Most rafts are equipped with a removable wind-shelter tent installed in the working position using arcs on either side of the raft.
The rigid metal raft SPS-12 with dimensions of 1.5 by 1.8 meters has a total weight (with equipment and supplies) of 180 kg. Designed to save 12 people, two people are placed on top and 10 in the water are held by a circular line. The SPP-6 and SPP-12 plastic rigid rafts are equipped with a wind-shelter and tarpaulin and accordingly accommodate 6 and 12 passengers. The heaviest of the hard rafts SPA-12, its total weight is 280 kg.
If necessary, any of the rafts can take the crew, twice the standard. An inflatable liferaft consists of an oval-shaped main buoyancy chamber, divided in the middle into two autonomous sections of equal volume. An inflatable bottom is attached below the perimeter of the buoyancy chamber. Two beams in the form of inflatable arches support a protective tent, consisting of two layers of waterproof material.
The air gap formed between the layers of fabric increases the heat-insulating properties of the tent, reduces the wetting of the material. The raft has two inlets, which, if necessary, can be closed with double blinds. Ship rafts on the outside and inside are painted in a bright orange color. On the inner side of the awning are placed: instructions for the primary maintenance of the raft, the layout of the valves (safety, blowing and blowing) and Morse code signs.
Appointment of supplies on a liferaft.
1. Water filling battery. To activate the battery, it is necessary to pull out the insulating plugs from its housing. 20-hour warning light battery.
2. Blowing valves 4 pcs. For pumping the raft with a foot pump, hand fur or mouth. Located on the buoyancy chamber near the arches and on the bottom of the raft.
3. The handles on the bottom serve to return the overturned raft to its normal position. A carbon dioxide cylinder is used as an emphasis for legs..
4. The manual fur is designed for swapping and full blowing of the raft.
5. The container with the supply. Fastens to a buoyancy chamber between arches of an awning.
6. Signal search fire. It is located on the outside of the tent arch. The 2.5 volt bulb is protected by a transparent plastic cap. The line of sight is 1 4 km. The bulb is connected by a soft wire to the water-filling battery..
7. A set of indoor lighting. It is located on an arc near the entrance from the inside. It consists of a light bulb in a protective cap mounted in a rubber, hermetically sealed bag, inside which is a water-filling battery. Outboard water is poured into the bag, after which the light starts to shine.
8. Metal plugs (7 pcs.) Are designed to blow the raft. They are located on the buoyancy chamber at the entrances, on the central bank, bottom and arches of the awning from the outside.
9. Towing line 20 meters long. It is stored in a bay on a buoyancy chamber. When towing, it is attached to the rings on the outer gangway..
10. Water collectors inclined grooves on the outer tent of the raft, converging in the center, are designed to collect rainwater. The drainage pipes of the catchments with plugs are inserted inside the raft.
11. Bag with oars and other equipment. Fastens to a buoyancy chamber between arches of an awning.
12. Starting line. When tensioned, the automatic rafting mechanism is activated. It also serves as a safety line that holds the inflated raft in the immediate vicinity of the damaged ship.
13. Carbon dioxide cylinder. Attached to the bottom of the raft with a special lacing.
14. Safety valves (4 pcs.). Serve to relieve excess pressure in the cylinders with automatic raft inflating or overheating in the sun. Located on the buoyancy chamber and arches of the awning.
15. A scoop with foam rubber. Used to drain the interior of the raft.
16. Ballast pockets. They are rectangular rubber bags attached to the bottom of the raft. When filled with overboard water, increase the stability of the raft on the waves, reduce wind and wave drift. If necessary, they can be removed by pulling on special pins fixed at the entrances.
17. Throwing end with a rubber ring. Fixed at one of the entrances. Designed to provide assistance and pull the victim to the raft. The casting end and the ring must have independent buoyancy.
18. The internal gangway. Facilitates the rise of man from the water. Increases the longitudinal stiffness of the raft.
19. Outdoor rails. Designed to keep people in the water afloat.
20. Outdoor gangway. Facilitates the rise of man from the water. Floating anchors, tow lines, etc. are attached to the ladder..
21. Floating anchor (2 pcs.). One inside and one outside the raft. Designed to reduce wind and wave drift, increase raft stability.
Inflatable rafts have an oval shape and are produced mainly of two types: six-seater PSN-6 and ten-seater PSN-10. In addition, round and multifaceted rafts of imported production are used on Russian vessels. PSNs are stored folded in a special plastic container box. In the event of an accident, the raft is dumped into the water, where, using the gas filling mechanism, it is put into operation for several minutes. Due to the low weight and the absence of special devices for launching, the use of rafts is acceptable even in cases where boats cannot be used.
Individual ship rescue equipment.
That is, funds intended to save one person who has fallen into the water. These include: life jackets, bibs, circles and various life suits. The most common are life vests. The number of vests on a ship is determined by the total number of its crew and passengers plus five percent of the required reserve. In addition, the ship must have at least two dozen children’s life jackets with a well-read inscription For children.
Life jackets are placed in easily accessible, well-known and clearly marked places. For passengers in the cabin. There are several types of life jackets, but the requirements for all are almost the same. The life jacket should: be quickly put on and fixed on the body with one or two simple operations. If necessary, he should be removed just as quickly. Improper or delayed donning of a life jacket should be ruled out. Have two or three isolated buoyancy chambers, each of which is able to keep a person on the surface of the water.
The body of the victim, dressed in a life jacket, should be close to the horizontal (in most modern life jackets up to 50 degrees of deviation from the vertical), since the vertical position would enhance the cooling of the legs, the deeper the colder the water. The victim’s head should be slightly thrown back, while the mouth is 12 cm from the surface of the water. When wearing a vest, the body acquires this position in water after 4 to 5 seconds, even if the victim is unconscious. It is necessary that the back of the head does not submerge in water, since its cooling can lead to a violation of the thermoregulation of the whole organism.
In inflatable lifejackets, internal volumes are filled with air (or safe gas) automatically in 2 3 seconds using a special gas filling mechanism. To maintain a given pressure in the buoyancy chambers, a working blow valve is provided. To facilitate the search for the injured, the life jacket is equipped with sound and light alarm. A life jacket should not constrain movements and cause harm to a person when jumping into water from a height of up to 4 5 meters.
The material from which the lifejacket is made is non-combustible and immune to the effects of petroleum products. Passengers most often deal with a chest rescue inflatable NSN. Inflatable rescue bib is made of orange rubberized fabric. It is worn over the head, covering it from behind like a collar. The main internal volume of the bib is located on the chest, which ensures the correct position of the human body in the water. Bib weight with bag and straps 1.3 kg, positive buoyancy 16 18 kg.
Details of vest and rescue bib.
1. The blow-off valve in the form of a conventional tube is designed to bring the vest into working position in case of a malfunction in the gas filling system and to maintain the set pressure in the buoyancy chambers.
2. The lifting strap has a loop shape. Designed to lift a person out of the water. The belt loop fastens to the outer surface of the bib using a button that opens easily when lifting the sinking.
3. Emergency signal light facilitates the search for a person on the water in the dark. It consists of a water-filling battery of the Mayachok type and a 2.5 volt light bulb protected by a transparent cap. The electrical circuit is activated for 2 to 10 minutes depending on the temperature of the water. The duration of the light bulb is 11 hours.
4. The whistle is placed in a special pocket; it serves for an audible alarm in conditions of poor visibility. The sound of a whistle is heard two to three times farther than a scream, and is easier to auditory direction finding.
5. The automatic gas filling mechanism consists of a spray can with a capacity of 44 cubic meters. cm, filled with liquid carbon dioxide under pressure up to 200 atm., and a special launch head. When the head is pulled out, gas begins to flow into the buoyancy chambers. Within 2 3 seconds, the vest takes the desired shape.
The gas filling mechanism must not be actuated if the vest was previously inflated through a service valve. Excessive pressure leads to damage to the vest, because it does not have a safety valve..
6. Hemp tart allows the victim to become attached to a floating object or communicate with another victim. Waist and foot belts are designed to fix the vest on the body and relieve dynamic loads that occur when a person jumps into the water.
Currently, they are made from various grades of foams, cork chips, polystyrene foam and other floating materials. The outer diameter of the lifebuoy should not be more than 800 mm, the inner not less than 400 mm. The buoyancy of the circle of 14.5 kg is maintained during the day in the water. The circle must withstand impact when dropped from a height of three meters with a rib on solid ground or flat on water from a ten-meter height. And should not light up in an open flame for two three seconds. Lifebuoys are placed so that they can be easily and quickly removed. On ships of the Navy, every second circle is equipped with an emergency signal light. A 28 meter long life line is attached to some circles..
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.