The international space search system for emergency ships and aircraft COSPAS-SARSAT has been used in the practice of world rescue since 1982. At the beginning of 2002, more than 10,000 people in distress were saved with the help of the COSPAS-SARSAT system.
COSPAS-SARSAT system, radio alarm equipment, beacons, beacons, emergency radio stations, distress alert methods.
To detect a fact of distress with the COSPAS-SARSAT system, a two-minute reception of a distress signal is sufficient. However, the time from the notification of the accident to the moment the search and rescue services received the decoded information, in the worst of all possible cases, can reach 5 hours. For comparison, it is enough to say that when using traditional radio tools the notification time (in fact, establishing the fact of the accident) is 13 72 hours , and this without determining the exact coordinates and guarantee that the signal will be heard at all.
In the COSPAS-SARSAT system at a frequency of 121.5 MHz, a number of beacons and beacons are used, used in civil and military aviation and sometimes used by amateur travelers. The accuracy of determining the coordinates of such beacons and beacons is 20 25 km. Several types of emergency satellite beacons and beacons operating in the COSPAS-SARSAT system at 121.5 MHz and 406.025 MHz are produced and used..
Automatic beacon ARB-406.
It has an absolutely hermetic, positive buoyant hull with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 700 mm. Beacon weight 4.5 kg. Continuous operation time of at least 24 hours. Inclusion is carried out manually or automatically when immersed in water. The beacon remains operational at an air temperature of 40 to +50 degrees, when immersed in water, including sea, to a depth of 100 meters and when dropped into water from a height of up to 15 meters.
Every 50 seconds, the beacon transmits a signal that allows you to determine the coordinates of the accident site with an accuracy of + -15 km. In addition, with the help of a removable remote control, it is possible to collect and automatically transmit special information about the type and name of the object in distress, the nature of the accident, the assistance required, the time elapsed since the accident, etc. It is possible to send a signal to airborne radio stations to accurately bring search aircraft.
Automatic beacon Search-B (ARB-121).
radio stations, it must be remembered that the higher the transmitter is located (more precisely, its transmitting antenna), the further you can hear it. External batteries attached to radio stations do not like low temperatures, so they should be stored under clothing, as close to the body as possible. The antenna insulator must always be kept dry and clean. Instructions for using emergency radios, beacons and beacons are usually printed with indelible paint on the body. You should familiarize yourself with them in advance.
The first inclusion of radio stations operating in manual mode should last at least 3 hours so that at least two COSPAS-SARSAT system satellites can receive their signal. One fixing signal and determining the place of distress, another confirming the reception and specifying the coordinates. After that, it’s enough to turn on the radio for ten minutes, at the beginning of each next hour.
When choosing a radio station, it should be remembered that today the most reliable of all radio equipment for emergency radio signaling is the COSPAS-SARSAT beacon. In the western market, which has become more accessible today, beacons of various modifications are offered, including portable ones. If you are planning a risky trip, it probably makes sense to throw a few hundred dollars on such a device with the prospect of saving your life in case of a disaster.
If possible, radio conversations with rescuers in radiotelephone mode should try to inform them.
About the alleged location of the victims and their number, and at sea about the speed and direction of the drift of the vessel or collective rescue equipment.
On the marks of the accident. The most noticeable landmarks from air and land used by injured sign signals and other ways of attracting attention. For a ship or any other vehicle, its type, hull color, flag, name.
About the type of help required.
On the availability of communications and signaling facilities.
About local meteorological conditions.
On the state of the victims of the disaster (the number of wounded, disabled, etc.).
Landing training opportunities.
When working in radiotelephone mode, it is necessary to formulate the message in advance and possibly as briefly as possible and state it in a calm manner to the person who has the most legible diction. Clog the air with moaning, complaints, curses, calls for help, etc. emotions are not worth it. Information should be concise, specific and clearly interpreted. It depends on how quickly rescuers can find and provide assistance to the victims of the disaster..
When using radio equipment, the distress call time must be taken into account. For more effective reception of emergency radio signals in the world practice, the so-called minute of silence or the international period of silence. This is a three-minute period of time from 15 to 18 minutes and from 45 to 48 minutes for each hour, when radiotelegraph stations on ships, planes and helicopters of rescue and ice services, drilling platforms at sea, as well as coastal radio stations stop transmitting and work on receiving emergency messages. Accordingly, for radiotelephone stations, the silence period is set from 0 to 3 minutes and from 30 to 33 minutes every hour..
During these periods, only distress and alert signals are permitted. In addition, there are a number of special guidelines governing the operation of ship and coastal radio stations in a given period of time, providing the most favorable distress signal reception.
Using mobile phones for distress calls.
Mobile phones that are common today may turn out to be useless from the point of view of distress signal transmission. Especially if a person gets lost in a forest close to the city. Or ended up there as a result of a plane crash, flooding of a pleasure craft, car accident, and more. When using mobile phones as emergency radio communications, you should seek help by calling the Ambulance, police, rescue forces, civil defense and others.
And explain your situation as briefly and accurately as possible. Long conversations on a mobile phone are not recommended for the sake of conserving energy resources, which may be needed to obtain additional consultations on survival, transmitting a distress signal in the beacon mode and as an orientation tool.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.