Crossing over water through small rivers and mountain streams, crossing along a log, tree, luggage, pole bridge, tensioned rope, along snow and ice bridges.

Crossing through small rivers and mountain streams can be carried out by jumping, but without a backpack, so as not to get a leg injury (sprain, dislocation, etc.). In this case, you should use pole insurance. The sixth is placed in the middle of the water obstacle, upstream. 

Crossing over water through small rivers and mountain streams, crossing along a log, tree, luggage, pole bridge, tensioned rope, along snow and ice bridges.

Leaning on a pole, you need to push off from the shore and jump to the opposite shore. It is possible to carry out insurance with a rope railing or a pole used in the form of a railing. It is possible to cross shallow rivers over protruding stones, if they are located at a step or at a distance of a small jump, which can be done from a place, with or without a shrikzak. But before using this method, you need to make sure their stability.

due to stones rolling along the bottom, high flow velocity, low water temperature, considerable depth, etc. A log (tree) should be 3-4 meters longer than the width of the river channel. Boughs must be carefully cut down. The log is laid perpendicular to the channel and is strengthened on both sides.

This is recommended in the following order. From the side of the coast, from which it is supposed to direct a crossing, a hole is dug out by a corner. The cooked log rests against it. Then, the rope is attached to the top with a grasping knot so that there are two identical ends, for which an equal number of people from both sides take and begin to slowly raise the log by 40-50 degrees. When the log is raised to the desired height, it is turned perpendicular to the opposite bank.

Then they also slowly begin to lower to the intended point on the opposite bank. The first tourist passes lightly on a stacked log. If necessary, secures the top of the log for stability. The rope on which the log was lowered is tied to the desired height, using it as a railing. Another method of laying logs by extension is recommended. It consists of the following.

The tree trunk of the required length is selected, cleared of branches and laid on rollers near the shore with the end directed in the opposite direction. To prevent the log from tipping over, heavy objects are tied to the butt for counterweight, and the main rope is tied to the top of the log, as in the method described above. On both sides rogulins about 1.5 meters high are driven in, through which ropes are passed. The ropes on each side are held by two participants. Others from the side of the comel begin to feed the log forward, while the insurers give out a rope. After the log lies on the opposite side, the first participant passes along it, holding on to the ropes.

Crossing to the opposite bank, he strengthens the log, bandages the railing to the desired height. Only after this, the participants, holding on to the railing, move one by one to the opposite side. If the log is thin, wet and difficult to move around, for stability you need to make nicks. On a raw log, crossing is possible sitting or on your knees. You can use another way to guide the crossing, which is as follows.

On a narrow section of the river where it is planned to cross the river, a tree is selected near the water, and it is felled so that it overlaps the channel. The first tourist crosses without a backpack, sticking to thick knots, which interferes with the passage of branches, cuts down. On the opposite bank, it strengthens the tree so that it is not demolished. If at such a crossing there is the slightest danger of falling, it is necessary to tighten the rope railing. The most experienced tourist is the last to cross. He ties the ropes so that they can be pulled out from the other bank and crosses himself.

On narrow sections of the river, a pole is thrown for insurance, which serves as a railing. It is fixed on the shore or it is held by tourists from one or the other side. During the transition, you can use the pole as a safety support, which is set against the tide. In order to protect nature, this method should be used only as a last resort..

In taiga areas, blockages are often found on rivers, which can be used when crossing to the other side. But before you go through the blockage, you need to check the stability of the logs. The strength of the blockage is checked by one of the tourists. Without a backpack, he goes to the opposite shore and determines the stability and strength of the blockage. Subsequent pass blockage one or two.

Crossing streams on luggage.

Crossing luggage is used on narrow, but deep streams, channels, through canyons and cracks, the passage through which is associated with danger for participants. Guiding such a crossing is technically uncomplicated. Through an obstacle several not thick logs are laid. So that when walking on them the logs do not part, they should be fixed (tie with a cord). Single or double rope handrails are pulled for safe passage through the luggage, which can be replaced with thin, strong poles, having strengthened them on the shore, or they are kept. As a safety support, you can also use a 3-5-meter pole, which is placed at an angle upstream. After crossing to the opposite shore, it is transferred to the next.

Crossing the narrow riverbeds along the pole bridge.

A ferry bridge crossing is organized across narrow riverbeds. Suspension bridge is pre-assembled on the shore of three main ropes and thin logs. The length of the loops supporting the log should be such that the railings turn out to be the armpits of a person walking along the crossing. When preparations with the bridge are completed, one or two participants move to the other side with a safety rope. Loops are attached to the safety rope. Having crossed to the opposite shore, tourists pull the bridge of the bridge to their side and firmly fix them. The bridge should be strengthened so that during the passage along it it does not touch the water and does not swing.

To guide crossings over water barriers, felling of living trees should be avoided. In a forested area, there are enough felled trees that can be used when crossing. However, before you choose one of them, you need to check its strength on the shore.

Crossing a stretched rope or cable through stormy and deep rivers.

Ferry along a stretched rope or cable is carried out through a stormy and deep river. To guide the hinged crossing, one of the participants needs to wade the river on a safety rope and fix its end on the shore. You can use the method of throwing a rope with an object in order to overwhelm it for a certain support (tree, bushes, rock ledge, etc.) if the river bed is narrow. Having secured the rope in this way, before crossing it, it is necessary to test its strength and reliability.

After that, one participant crosses to the other shore and securely fastens the end of the rope, the second end is also firmly fixed. A rope for a hinged crossing is stretched at a slight angle to the opposite bank from the side where the group is located. For the safety of the crossing, another additional safety main rope is pulled. When crossing, the participant fastens to two ropes with carbines from the chest harness and the arbor.

If the ropes are strongly inclined to the opposite bank and there is a danger of injury, people should be crossed with their feet forward. If the taut ropes have a small angle of slope or sag, then the crossing is carried out head first. It is also convenient because the ferryman can help himself with his hands. The crossing is carried out in a horizontal position due to its weight, sometimes with the help of an auxiliary rope, which is fastened to the carbines on which the tourist crosses. Help is provided from the coast in the direction of movement by pulling the auxiliary rope.

Backpacks need to be transported separately one at a time. The most experienced tourist ties the ropes so that they can be pulled out from the other shore, and after that he leaves the shore last. For crossing hiking, you can use a steel 4 mm cable instead of the main rope. The advantage of the cable is great. It does not sag much, higher strength.

Crossing snow and ice bridges.

Crossing the snow and ice bridges. Snow bridges are usually formed in a cone of winter or spring avalanche in the valley. Through the thickness of the snow, a stream breaks through a tunnel. In the summer, such bridges are very thawing, but they are still strong enough to cross over to the opposite side. When crossing the snow bridge, all necessary safety measures should be taken. First of all, you should check its strength. To this end, one of the participants on the insurance with an ice ax, without a backpack, carefully walks along the bridge and probes the snow in front of him. After the first tourist crosses, the rope with which he insured is fastened on the opposite bank, forming a railing.

If the snow bridge is weak, it should be overcome by crawling. For safety, difficult areas are recommended to be held in a bundle of 2-3 people, trace to trace. In the most extreme cases, a fragile snow bridge can be overcome by jumping, if there is a full guarantee that during the push and landing the roof of the bridge will not collapse under the participant and he will be able to brake in time in the snow. Ice bridges areas with open or clogged with snow cracks should be passed with mandatory exploration and insurance. In separate, steeper areas, cats should be used for insurance.

Small cracks encountered in the path should be stepped over, wide ones should be circumvented. Cracks up to 2 meters wide can be overcome by jumping without a backpack, but always with insurance with the main rope over your shoulder or lower back. The insurer should be no closer than 10-15 meters from the edge of the crack with a convenient support.

Jumping on the ice in cats is undesirable, as you can catch, lose your balance and fall. If, nevertheless, the jump is forced to be made in cats, then you need to choose a place to land on the snow. Before jumping, you must carefully check the strength of the edges of the crack. When there are 3-4 people on the opposite side, they can throw the backpacks over the straps, fastening them with a carabiner to the auxiliary rope.

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