Crometars for fermentation and upholding of homemade wine will need bottles for the finished drink, as well as a thermometer, watering can, rubber tubes, and a press. For crushing fruit and berry raw materials, a grinder, a meat grinder with a grill with large holes and a shredder for large fruits (apples, pears) should be prepared.
Crusher, grater board and press for extracting juice from fruits and berries in the manufacture of homemade wine.
A crusher for crushing fruits and berries can be made by yourself. All wooden parts and fixtures should be made of hardwood and saturated with hot paraffin. In no case should resinous wood be used, the bitter taste of which can turn into juice.
The crusher consists of a wooden frame, a wooden loading bucket, a pair of rollers mounted on a frame in bearings, and handles for their rotation. The rollers have a ribbed-grooved, corrugated surface with a reef depth of 2-3 mm, made of stainless steel or hardwood. Convenient rollers 2 cm long and 8 cm in diameter.
The ribs with respect to the axis are directed obliquely with a shift in the direction of 2 cm for every 10 cm of the length of the roll. The rollers are fixed in bearings mounted on the same common frame, interconnected by two gears of different diameters and rotate at different speeds towards each other. The frame is made of wooden blocks 10&# 215; 4 cm 60–70 cm long. The width of the frame depends on the length of the rollers (15–20 cm), the distance between the transverse bars is equal to the sum of the diameters of the rollers plus 10 cm.
The metal fittings are coated with a mixture of wax or paraffin with lard. The distance between the rollers in the crusher is set depending on the type of processed raw materials. For cherries without crushing seeds – 5-8 mm, for gooseberries – 3-4 mm, for red and white currants – 1-4 mm.
The rollers are rotated manually. A wooden bucket is installed above the rollers for laying the fruit. The crusher is placed over a tub or other wooden or enameled utensils to receive a mass of fragmented fruits or berries – pulp.
Grater board for chopping berries and fruits.
Delicate berries or fruits can be crushed in a tub or in an enameled pan with a wooden crush. The gooseberries are crushed in a meat grinder with a grill with large holes. It is also convenient to chop fruits with a shredder with a diameter of about 6 mm.
You can make a special grater board. You need to take a board of non-coniferous wood with a thickness of 3-4 cm, a length of 70-80 cm and a width of 20-25 cm. The entire length of the board to the side edges with nails to nail two slats 2.5-3 cm thick and 6-8 cm wide selected quarter or groove along the length of the staff. This forms a tray with two longitudinal grooves on the inside.
Then put together a square box 10-15 cm high without a bottom and a lid across the width of the board so that it can move freely along the tray back and forth. At the bottom of the box, from the outside, beat the slats that should go into the grooves of the walls of the tray. This will hold the drawer and even gently press it against the board. In the middle of the side walls of the box, above the rails, make a 3 cm wide slot, where to insert the handle of the pressure plate.
The depth of the slot should be such that a gap of 3-4 mm is created between the grater plate and the pressure board. Then you need to make a grater plate. It can be made from an ordinary large kitchen grater from tin, but it is better to make a grater plate from stainless steel. In the middle of the board, cut a rectangular hole a little smaller than the grate plate, and fix it with screws or small nails.
The grater board is installed over a wooden or enameled vessel, resting one end of it on the wall, table, box, etc. 10-20 apples are placed in the box, depending on their size, a square pressure board with a handle is placed on top and, resting on it hand, move the box back and forth. Rubbed mass falls into the receiving vessel.
Lever press for extracting juice from crushed or crushed fruits or berries.
Juice from the pulp of crushed or crushed fruits or berries is usually obtained using a juicer or press. If in the summer season there is a constant excess of berries or fruits, you can use the universal frame press used in beekeeping by slightly changing its design, or make a simple press like honey squeezers from honeycombs.
Wooden goats are arranged on four legs 1 meter high, connected at the top by a thick wooden board 8-10 cm thick, 30 cm wide and about 1 meter long. First, a longitudinal slot is made in the board 10-12 cm wide and 40 cm long. Then two smoothly planed 9-10 cm thick bars are inserted into the slot. They are connected with a clamp in the lower part, and holes are drilled into the upper part, into which wooden pegs are inserted or iron rods.
Then make several wooden wedges of different thicknesses. Between the bars, pushing them to the limit, a canvas-filled canvas bag is inserted. Wedges are driven into the slot, the pulp is compressed and the juice that enters the vessel begins to separate. To fully squeeze the juice, the press should be compressed as much as possible, but not immediately, let stand for 8-15 minutes, then knock out the wedges, take out the bag with the pulp, shake it several times, put it in the press again and squeeze it strongly.
Universal frame press for extracting juice from fruits and berries.
To extract the juice, you can use the universal frame press used in beekeeping. First, remove the iron tank, basket and coasters from the frame press. Then, two plates (the bottom and the pressing board), several gratings and one frame, the dimensions of which must correspond to the size of the press, are made of wood.
The length of the side of the frame and plates should be 1.5 cm less than the distance between the vertical posts of the press frame, the grilles should be less than the frame by 1.5 cm on each side. The frame is made 3-4 cm high. The bottom plate of the bottom is equipped with sides and a groove, along which the juice will drain into the receiving vessel. A drainage grate is placed on the bottom plate, then the frame.
The frame is covered with a napkin measuring 70 x 70 cm from a rare canvas or packaging fabric (pre-boiled). The pulp is placed on a napkin, aligned at the edges of the frame, the hanging ends of the napkin are folded like a packet, then the frame is removed, and a grid of rods or plates is placed on top of the canvas with the pulp. After that, they again put the frame, napkin, pulp, grate, etc..
A pressing board is placed on the upper package and the juice is extracted. Before use, all wooden parts of the crusher and press are thoroughly washed with a hot soda solution using a brush. After thorough cleaning, all metal parts are heated with a blowtorch and then covered with a thin layer of sufficiently hot paraffin with ssalom (one part of paraffin and one part of fat).
This is done so that when the juice comes in contact with iron, the wine does not turn black. If not enough hot paraffin is applied with a thick layer (or on cold metal), then it will fall off and the surface will be exposed.
Based on materials from the book Making wine, moonshine, liquors and tinctures. Preparation technology, equipment, formulation, storage and use.
Team of Authors.