If you do not have a compass, you can determine the approximate direction to the north by the sun. And knowing where the north is, and all the other sides of the horizon. Below is a method by which you can at any time when the sun shines brightly enough to determine the sides of the horizon by the shadow of a pole.
Determination of the north and sides of the horizon by the shadow of the pole, by the clock and by the stars at night in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
Find a straight pole one meter long and do the following:
1. Insert the pole into the ground on a flat, vegetation-free area where the shadow of the pole is clearly visible. The pole does not have to be upright. Tilting it to get the best shadow (in size and direction) does not affect the accuracy of this method.
2. Mark the end of the shadow with a small peg, a stick, a stone, a branch, your own finger, a depression in the snow. Or in any other way. Wait until the end of the shadow moves a few centimeters. With a pole length of one meter, you need to wait 10-15 minutes.
3. Mark the end of the shadow of the pole again.
4. Draw a straight line from the first mark to the second and extend it approximately 30 cm beyond the second mark.
5. Stand with the toe of the left foot at the first mark, and the toe of the right foot at the end of the line.
Now you are facing north. Identify other parties to the horizon. To mark the directions on the ground (to orient others), draw a line crossing the first in the form of a cross and mark the sides of the horizon.
The basic rule when determining the sides of the horizon using the shadow of the pole.
If you are still not sure whether to put your left foot or right foot on the first mark of the shadow from the pole, remember the basic rule that distinguishes east from west:
The sun always rises on the east side and sets on the west. But rarely precisely in the east and precisely in the west. The shadow of the pole moves in the opposite direction. Therefore, anywhere in the world, the first shadow mark will always be in the western direction, and the second in the east.
Determination of the north and sides of the horizon by the dial of the dial in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
For an approximate definition of the north, you can use the usual dial clock. In the northern temperate zone, hours are set so that the hour hand points to the sun. The line from north to south lies between the clockwise and the number 12. This refers to standard time.
If the hour hand is moved forward an hour, then the line from north to south runs between the clock hand and the number 1 (13). If you doubt which side of the line the north is on, remember that the sun in the Northern Hemisphere is in the eastern part of the sky before noon, and in the western in the afternoon.
The clock can also be used to determine the sides of the horizon in the southern temperate zone, but in a slightly different way than in the northern zone. Here the number 12 should be sent to the sun. Then the North-South line will run in the middle between the number 12 and the clockwise. When the hour hand is moved one hour forward, the North – South line lies between the clockwise and the number 1 (13).
In both hemispheres, temperate zones are between 23 and 66 degrees north or south latitude. In cloudy weather, put a wand at the center of the clock and hold it so that the shadow from it falls clockwise. In the middle between the shadow and the number 12, there will be a direction to the north.
Determining the North, South, and Side of the Horizon at Night by Stars in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
At night, you can determine the sides of the horizon not only by compass, but also by the stars. In the Northern Hemisphere, to find the North Star, look for Ursa Major. Two stars at the end of the bucket are called pointers. The North Star is in a straight line with them. At a distance equal to five segments between the pointers. Ursa Major slowly rotates around the North Star and therefore its position is changing.
You can navigate by the constellation Cassiopeia. This constellation of five bright stars has the shape of an oblique letter M. Or W when it is low. The North Star is right in the center. Almost in a straight line from the central star of this constellation. About the same distance from her as from Ursa Major.
Determining North Direction from Stars in the Northern Hemisphere.
Cassiopeia also slowly revolves around the North Star. It is always located almost opposite Ursa Major. This position of this constellation is of great help for orientation in the case when the Ursa Major is low and may not be visible due to vegetation or high local objects.
Determining the direction of the south by stars in the southern hemisphere.
In the southern hemisphere, the direction to the south can be determined, and from here all other directions can be determined by the constellation Southern Cross. This group of four bright stars has the shape of a cross, tilted to one side. Two stars forming a long axis or the rod of a cross are called pointers..
From the base of the cross, mentally extend the distance five times the length of the cross itself and find an imaginary point. It will serve as a direction to the south. From this point, look directly at the horizon and select a landmark.
Based on the book SURVIVAL (Survival).
Koleda S.I., Drachev P.N..