The first condition for salvation is to use distress signals to let others know about their situation and, if possible, whereabouts. Once the contact is established, you can transfer other information.
Distress alert in emergency and emergency situations. Fire and smoke alarm, sound signals.
An obvious distress alert is a mobile or satellite phone, which should be used very sparingly, but if you are deprived of the luxury of such a connection in your position, then there are international distress calls.
Distress alert for a car or plane crash.
If you are near a broken car, a stranded ship, or an emergency landing, they can provide many opportunities for signaling. If there was no fire, then there is fuel, fuel oil, hydraulic fluid that can burn. Tires and electrical insulation put on fire will produce black smoke. Glass and chrome surfaces will help as mirrors, especially fairings, engine hoods and wheel caps.
Life jackets, inflatable boats, rafts and parachutes are brightly colored and attract attention. Place these bright and shiny objects around your location where they will be most visible, and you will attract attention. Turn on lights, headlights, etc. at night, or if the batteries are discharged, then leave them in reserve in case you blink your headlights, give signals with a horn and in other ways to attract attention just when you see a flying airplane or helicopter, or signs of potential rescuers.
Fire and smoke distress alerts.
Bonfire, both fire and smoke is a great way to attract attention. Making signal fires is one of the first tasks after urgent problems related to first aid to the wounded and providing shelters from adverse environmental conditions are solved. In a large group, several people need to get their fuel ready for camp and signal fires as quickly as possible..
Distress Signal Sites.
When placing distress signals, first examine the terrain. For high beeps, select high places. If you are on the crest of a hill, then a simple erection of an unusual silhouette, contour, design can attract attention to you. If you lay out signals on the ground, do it on horizontal sections or on those slopes that are most likely to fall into the field of view of rescuers operating from the air.
For search from the air, tactics of gradually moving the inspection from low ridges to higher ones are usually used. This creates the problem that the slopes behind the ridge may be hidden as the aircraft approaches. If you doubt the choice of the slope, then the signals next to the crest should be visible, from which side the rescue plane.
International Distress Code.
When a visual contact is established, then more complex international codes – signals will help to inform about your basic needs, if verbal communication is impossible. When moving rescuers on a ship or plane, it may be necessary to prepare a landing place or a landing site and some knowledge of basic actions will greatly help ensure the operation.
Distress radio transmitters.
Lifeboats, rafts, and even lifejackets are sometimes equipped with radio transmitters that send location signals, although they may not be very effective over very long distances. Many emergency transmitters are also very limited in range. In order to avoid wasting precious battery energy, they should be left in reserve until there is a chance that their signal can be heard. However, if the radio system is powerful, the distress signal should be sent immediately and repeated regularly..
Read the instructions for all available radio transmitters. Airborne transmitters can operate on many waves, however, some alarm systems are tuned only to the frequency of distress signals. In general, portable meter transceivers that are used by climbers can only communicate with radio stations in the line of sight, without obstacles between them. Although a permanent relay station at a strategic height can sometimes be installed.
Such transceivers, as a rule, are tuned to a wave of mountain rescuers, but the communication order must be determined before entering the route. If you have a working transmitter, check the situation with the batteries. Can a vehicle engine be used to charge batteries? Allocate a certain amount of fuel for this and plan your communication sessions according to a certain schedule, which is much better than a long hang on the air without any system. If someone hears your signal, they can understand that they can be expected again..
Audible Distress Calls.
Sound is also a great way to get attention. If you know that people are nearby. Along with the SOS signal there is an international mountain distress signal six whistles per minute (or six swings, or six flashes, etc.), then a minute of silence, and then everything repeats. There may be enough screaming if help is near, but you are not able to reach it due to trauma.
Creative Distress Calls.
Do not give up ideas such as a message in a bottle. This method will have little chance of success if you are in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. However, on the river, a noticeable object with a clear message can attract attention, for example, a small raft with a flag with the inscription SOS. Use imagination and creativity when looking for ways to draw attention to yourself and your situation that do not require valuable energy and resources..
Distress while driving.
If you think that help is very unlikely and the best thing you can do is move to salvation yourself, then you should leave visible and understandable signals and signs in your way. So that if rescuers nevertheless go to the scene of the disaster, they can get information about the route you have chosen. On the way, you may have more opportunities to attract attention if you get close to regular transport lines. Or go to a more open area.
Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.