The traditional Finnish knife, in common called “Finca”, has become widespread in Russia since the 1930s. Today it is used for both hunting and economic purposes, undergoing some modifications from the craftsmen. The initial purpose of the Finnish knife in the homeland of appearance was domestic: it was used for housework, woodworking, then it was used for hunting and fishing.
- Features of the Finnish knife
- 1.1Russian “Finca”
- 2Puukko and leuku
- 3 Finnish knife puukko do it yourself
- 4 Finnish knife leuku do it yourself
Features of the Finnish knife
The classic Finnish knife has its own characteristics:
- The direct form of the design consisting of a blade and a handle without limiter.
- The handle is always made of wood. This is due to the fact that in cold weather the tree is warmer and more comfortable for the hand than other materials. In addition, the wooden handle does not tamper. For its manufacture have always been used solid wood, most often birch, which has the most beautiful woody pattern.
- The shape of the handle is made under the arm, expanding in the center, without grooves for the fingers. The end of the handle is always extended, which is associated with ease of use in gloves. This part of it can be in the form of a cap of a mushroom or a comb, and the wider it is, the more convenient and faster it is to get the knife out of its sheath.
- The surface of the Finnish knife is always smooth, so as not to rub your hands when using without gloves.
- The wooden handle is well impregnated with beeswax, thus, it is given special strength, and at the right time the knife does not slip out of the hand.
- The blade is smooth, straight, some models can be equipped with a falling back.
- The dimensions of the blade usually range from 70 to 120mm in length of the blade, and the handle – from 60 to 100 mm. The thickness of the blade reaches 3.3 mm.
- Making finke made of carbon or hardened steel with a hardness of up to 54 units on the Rockwell scale.
- In addition, the Finnish knives are characterized by the presence of a low shutter and a wide trim on the bottom of the blade.
- Be sure to have a calfskin sheath with a suspension for attaching to a belt. Often the sheath is made of birch bark, durable and reliable.
The classic “Finca” is gradually being modified, being updated with modern design. Often decorated handle, the head on it can be made in the form of any animals or other figures, there was a brass or gold ring between the handle and the blade. It not only serves as a decoration of the knife, but also strengthens the junction of the handle with the blade. The blade can be engraved, and the sheaths are decorated in various ways, using embossing, burning out, weaving.
On the basis of the traditional Finnish knife created Russian version of “Finnish”. Its characteristic difference is the presence of a groove on the blade and guard — a cross-protective separation of the blade and the handle from slipping and more comfortable holding in the hands. In contrast to the famous prototype, the Russian “Finn” replenished the ranks of knives, which were until 1996.
Puukko and leuku
Puukko Finnish Knife is the prototype of the classic Finca. Its name comes from the Finnish word “forest” and means tools for working with wood, gutting fish, skinning and butchering game. In essence, a puukko is a universal household knife optimized for certain climatic and social conditions. There are the following types of knives of puukko: for work on a tree with a smoothly curved butt; knife with a wide blade and a comfortable long handle; universal knife for hunting; knife with a short blade for doing woodworking, other. The production of puukko is laid down by traditions in every Finnish family, and its design is a historical reflection of the craftsmen of its manufacture. His blade often has gutters on the sides of the blade, there are descents from the middle of the butt and dropping to zero. This creates convenience when working with wood. For puukko characteristic through-blade installation, and the front end of the handle reinforced metal bolster. The blade itself is not long, not exceeding 10 cm in length.
Leuku knife is the second type of Finnish knife. Unlike puukko, this species is thicker, longer and heavier. The characteristic for it is the knife cleaver. It is used for hewing pegs, clearing shrubs, for rough camp work, chopping wood chips. This knife in some cases can replace a lightweight ax. The end of the handle is designed in the form of a symmetric fungus so that the knife sits firmly in the hand with sweeping strokes.
Imagining a traditional, classic pattern of puukko and leuku, you can make a Finnish knife with your own hands.
Finnish knife puukko do it yourself
Before you make a puukko, you need to sketch a drawing of the future knife with the dimensions of the handle, blade, thickness, as well as additional details. After that, a sketch of the blade is cut and applied to the steel billet, circled, then a long and laborious process of sawing up the workpiece begins. You can use any convenient tool for cutting metal – sandpaper, files, grinders. After the workpiece has been cut, you need to drill a hole for the rivet at the end of the shank, this can be done with a drill. You can immediately make a rivet: take a brass rod with a diameter slightly smaller than a drilled hole.
Next, the blade is formed. Using an emery machine, the blade is sharpened so that the descents are displayed “to zero”. When withdrawing descents, you need to ensure that they are the same on both sides. At this stage of manufacturing, you can make the teeth on the shank, allowing further rigid fitting of the handle.
Grinding the blade is made with a medium roughness stone, and the cutting edge of the product is formed with a grinding bar. Work with the blade is completed by grinding it with felt. The sleeve is made of brass 3mm:
- A sketch of the groove sleeve is applied to the plate.
- A drill with a 2 mm drill bit is drilled into several holes at the groove site and then drilled.
- The hacksaw forms the sleeve shape, which is inserted on the shank and sealed on both sides.
Next is the handle. It can be done in a simple way and time consuming, depending on personal preference. The simple way is as follows:
- It is necessary to take a birch beam, drill a hole in it to set the blade, and also a hole for the rivet.
- With the help of epoxy glue the blade is glued inside, after the glue has dried, the shape of the handle is formed with sandpaper.
- Next, the handle is fixed in place of the rivet with a brass rod, and polished on a special machine.
- Made by the handle soaked with beeswax, linseed oil or a special paste.
Finnish knife leuku do it yourself
Leuku is made in a similar way as puukko.
- A drawing with a sketch of the required dimensions is made, the sketch is cut and applied to the material. The material can be used cut steel R6M5.
- A piece of metal is clamped with a vice, the shape of a grinder is cut out of it.
- Slopes are formed.
- A bolster is formed from a brass bar by drilling a hole in the middle along the diameter of the shank.
- On the shank you need to make the cut away from the blade for a tight fit of the handle.
- The grinding stone is formed cutting edge, the same on both sides. The blade is polished, after which you can proceed to the manufacture of the handle.
- For the handle is used birch bar. On it with a marker it is necessary to note the centering of the handle on all sides, the projection of the inner hole. It is necessary to ensure that the hole is exactly in the middle. Then a long drill hole is made at the intended center. It needs to be done like this: two holes are drilled parallel to each other, then the bridge between them is removed with a needle file. Next, the shank is inserted, and if it does not fit well enough, the hole is brought once again with a drill.
Next, a medium grit sandpaper is processed on the place on the bar to which the bolster will abut. Then the blade is wrapped with tape so that it cannot be cut. Next, a bolster is placed on the shank closer to the blade, after it a piece of skin (so that the parts are tightly attached to each other, as well as to prevent water from penetrating into the handle through the hole), after which the shank sits on the epoxy glue inside the handle.