Dressing the skins of goats and sheep, technology, cutting and sewing a variety of products from the skins.

from the skins.

The skin-wool cover (skin) taken from the carcass of killed or fallen sheep is called a sheepskin (for goats – a goat). Freshly skinned (steam) skin of adult animals and young animals after appropriate primary processing (ritual and preservation) becomes raw materials.

Skins that have undergone a certain technological process of processing (dressing) are called semi-finished products. Finished product – finished products from dressed-up natural or painted, ennobled or imitated semi-finished products.

Classify the sheepskin, that is, combine them into certain groups of skins with the same commodity properties, begin already in the raw materials for industrial purposes, the type and age of the animals from which they were obtained, the groups, length and condition of the coat, variety and presence of defects.

The skins of adult sheep and young animals older than 5 months of age of all breeds are divided into fur, fur and leather sheepskins, depending on their properties and production purpose..

Sheepskin Fur.

Fur sheepskin is produced by fine-wool and semi-fine-wool sheep breeds and their crosses of various crossbreeding options. According to the qualitative characteristics of the coat, fur sheepskins appear fine-fleeced, semi-fine-corded and semi-coarse.

Fur fine-fleece sheepskin has a dense, uniform coat, equal in length and thickness to fibers, a staple structure, consisting of downy fibers with a pronounced crimp characteristic of fine wool with a fineness of at least 60 quality (23.1-25 microns).

The coat of half-fine-wool sheepskin consists of a longer transitional hair with a fineness of 50-58 quality (25.1-31 microns). In the main area of ​​the skin, the wool is thick, elastic, staple, with medium or large crimp. On the edges and limbs, a staple-braid structure and individual core fibers sprouted over the entire area of ​​the sheepskin are allowed. Sheepskin sheep from Qigai sheep have a fineness of wool up to 46 qualities (34.1-37 microns).

Fur semi-coarse sheepskin – heterogeneous in types of fibers, staple-braid and pigtail structure, with a significant fluff content and longer transitional and core fibers. Depending on the length of the coat, fur sheepskins are woolly, half-woolen and low-haired. Fur wool sheepskins have a wool length of more than 30 mm, half-woolen fur – from 16 to 30 mm. Products made of fur sheepskin are usually worn with fur outside.

Contents of the book Dressing the skins of goats and sheep.

FOREWORD.

CLASSIFICATION OF SKIN SKIN AND SHEEP, SHEEPER AND GOAT.

Sheepskin Fur.
Fur sheepskin.
Leather Sheepskin.
Lamb skins: astrakhan, smushka, astrakhan and others.
Kozlin.

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN-HAIR COVER OF SKIN SKIN AND SHEEP.

Sheep and hair.
Sheep skin structure.
The structure and development of sheep wool.
Sheep wool growth, molting.
Goat skin.
Goat skin structure.
Wool structure.
The formation and growth of goat hair.

LIFETIME FACTORS INFLUENCING THE QUALITY OF GOAT SKIN AND SHEEP.

Sheepskin.
Age effect.
Gender influence.
Influence of conditions of detention.
Effect of feeding.
Impact of slaughter dates.
Goats.
Gender influence.
Influence of conditions of detention.
Effect of feeding.
Impact of slaughter dates.

SLIMMING ANIMALS AND SKINING GOATS AND SHEEP.

Sheep slaughtering techniques.
Sheep Skinning Technique.
Goat slaughtering techniques.
The technique of picking goat skin.

PRIMARY SKIN GOAT AND SHEEP.

Sheepskin coat preservation.
Wet salted canning.
Dummy canning.
Dry salted canning.
Acid-Salt Preservation.
Fresh dry canning.
Chloride Sulphate Preservation.
Goat Canning.

STORING SKIN SKIN AND SHEEP.

COMMODITY QUALITIES AND SORTING OF GOAT SKINS AND SHEEP.

Sheepskin sorting.
Lambskin Sorting.
Goat Sorting.

SKIN GOAT AND SHEEP.

Change in the structure of the skin and hair in the process of skinning.
The principles of the technological cycle.
The main parameters of the technological cycle.
Preparatory operations.
Soaking.
Degreasing.
Hair cutting.
Coagulation.
Dressing Operations.
Picking.
Fermentation and softening.
Tanning.
Fatliquoring.
Drying.
Finishing operations.
Dyeing.
Hides.
Breakdown.
Grinding.
Gentrification.
Carding.
A haircut.
Hair removal.
Tapping.
Ironing.
Spreading.
Forgotten Recipes.
Skin Reagents.
Dressing goat and sheep hides.
Technological schemes for processing fur sheepskin.
Technological schemes for processing a fur sheepskin.
Sheepskin dyeing.
Sheepskin Refining.
Dressing merlushki, astrakhan and goat fur.
Goat dressing.

COMMODITY QUALITIES OF MADE SHEEPERS AND GOATLES.

Hairline Length.
Thickness of the hair.
Hair uniformity.
Direction of wool fiber rods.
Shine of hair.
Softness of hair.
Self-sustaining hair.
Flexibility and resilience.
Skin tissue thickness.
Skin tissue strength.
Skin tissue density.
Permeability of skin tissue.
The bond strength of the hair with skin tissue.
Elongation and plasticity of the skin, softness of the skin.
Mass and area of ​​the semi-finished product.
Plastic and elastic properties.
Thermal properties.
Wear resistance.
The moisture content in the skin tissue.
Mass fraction of skin ash.

General methods of cutting and sewing of fur products from goat hides and sheep.

Tools for cutting and sewing fur products.
Preparation of hides for cutting.
Moisturizing.
Creep.
Reprimand.
Removal of defects.
Cut.
Sophisticated cutting techniques.
Dissolution.
Draft.
Commissure.
Breakdown.
Transfer.
Stitching.
Cutting and inlet of wedges.
Perforation.
Cut the Paws of the Skins of the Karakul.
Seams used for sewing fur products.
Calculation of patterns and resizing.

Tailoring of fur products from goat hides and sheep.

Outerwear.
Goatskin coat.
Outerwear from karakul.
Sheepskin and lambskin fur coats.
Sheepskin outerwear.
Children’s fur clothes.
Vest.
Hats.
Hats assortment.
The sequence of manufacture of fur.
Sheepskin hats.
Hats from the skins of the astrakhan-merlushkovoy group.
Caps made of fur velor and fur sheepskin.
Related Fur Products.
Karakul collar.
Merlushka collar and webbing.
Sheepskin Collars.
Sheepskin and goat fur boots.

SKIN AND FUR GOODS STORAGE.

Mole.
Kozheedy.

REFERENCES

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