Drying mushrooms is the simplest and most widely known method of harvesting harvested mushrooms for the future. Properly dried mushrooms are stored for a long time without losing taste and aroma. By nutritional value and digestibility, they are higher than salted and pickled. However, not all edible mushrooms are suitable for drying..
Drying mushrooms, preparing for drying, drying mushrooms in a Russian oven and oven, making mushroom powder, storing dried mushrooms.
Many leaf mushrooms contain bitter substances that are not removed during drying. Therefore, mostly tubular mushrooms are dried – ceps, boletus, boletus, boletus, butterflies, goats. You can also dry:
Stitches and morels.
Pipers motley and branched.
From the agaric mushrooms to the dryer are:
Openings autumn, winter and summer.
Variegated Mushroom Umbrella.
Preparing mushrooms for drying.
Before drying, mushrooms must be cleaned of needles, leaves, earth and other debris. They can not be washed or moistened with water. This will reduce the quality of the mushrooms, they will lose their aroma and become darker than normal. After cleaning, the mushrooms must be sorted by size and quality. Overripe, flabby, slimy, wormy, moldy specimens should be discarded. In boletus, boletus, oily leg should be cut flush with a hat, in porcini mushrooms – only the lower part.
Drying of mushrooms in special devices.
It is best to dry the mushrooms on special devices – sieves, sieves, wickers – strung on a thread, on studs mounted on wooden racks, or on the spokes of a mushroom dryer. It is very important to determine when the mushroom is dried. Normally dried mushroom does not crumble, bends slightly, breaks with effort.
An under-dried mushroom bends easily and feels moist to the touch. Over-dried mushroom – crumbles, crunches, easily breaks into pieces. Well-dried mushrooms taste and aroma similar to fresh ones. After drying, about 10% of wet weight remains in the mushrooms..
Drying mushrooms in a Russian oven.
Mushrooms prepared for drying are laid out with their hats down on sieves, braided or strung on knitting needles. They should be placed in the oven when the temperature in it after the furnace decreases to 60–70 degrees. Drying the mushrooms at a higher temperature is not recommended, as the mushrooms can be steamed or fried, burned and blackened very much. At temperatures below 50 degrees, mushrooms dry very slowly, they sour and deteriorate.
Before loading the mushrooms into the oven, you need to sweep the coals and ash from there. If the sieves or braids do not have supports, then bricks should be placed under them on the rib so that the mushrooms do not touch the hearth of the oven. When drying mushrooms, it is very important to ensure that moisture evaporating from the mushrooms is removed. To do this, closing the furnace, the shutter should be placed on two bricks, leaving a gap between them for air flow from below.
The upper part of the shutter should not close the furnace tightly, it should be tilted back a little, this will allow all the time to remove moist air from the furnace. The chimney at the beginning of drying should be ajar by two-thirds of the valve. As the mushrooms dry, it should be gradually covered, close tightly by the end of the drying.
Mushrooms dry unevenly, small hats dry faster, large ones slower. In order for the mushrooms to dry evenly, the dried ones must be removed in a timely manner, and the rest should be left to dry. Mushrooms cannot be overdried – they lose their aroma and become tasteless. Unfinished mushrooms begin to mold at the slightest dampness..
Morels and lines cannot be dried in a Russian oven. They are quickly steamed, and at the end of drying they burn up and lose quality. These mushrooms must first be dried in the open air or in a well-ventilated area, and then dried in the sun, over a hot stove, on or near the stove.
Drying mushrooms in the oven.
Drying of mushrooms can take place in the oven. To do this, you need to make several grids from a wire mesh with large cells that are inserted into the oven instead of the usual baking sheets. Mushrooms prepared for drying should be decomposed on wire racks, put in the oven at a temperature of 60–70 degrees and dried until tender. When drying mushrooms, the oven door should be left ajar so that moist air comes out.
Storage of dried mushrooms.
Dried mushrooms must be stored at temperatures up to 10 degrees and low humidity, otherwise they can become moldy. It should be borne in mind that they absorb odors very easily, so they can not be stored next to odorous substances.
Making mushroom powder.
For the manufacture of mushroom powder, you can use the same mushrooms as for drying. Powder can be prepared from one type of mushroom or from a mixture. From the legs of most tubular mushrooms, a coarse, poorly digestible powder is obtained, so it is better to use only their hats. Very good mushroom powder is obtained from chanterelles and morels..
Before drying on a powder, mushrooms are cut into 0.5–1 cm thick plates. They are dried in the sun, and then dried in the oven or in the oven. Dry mushrooms with a moisture content of not more than 12% are suitable for grinding into powder. They can be ground in a coffee grinder or crushed in a porcelain mortar. Poorly ground powder can be sieved through a fine sieve, and large particles should be dried and ground again. The finer the powder, the better it is..
Mushroom powder absorbs moisture very easily and quickly deteriorates. It should be stored in closed jars, bottles and other tightly closed dishes, in a dark, dry, cool place..
Powders from various mushrooms are used to make sauces, soups, caviar; they are sprinkled with meat and fish dishes during cooking to improve the taste and aroma. Before use, the mushroom powder is mixed with a small amount of warm water and left for 20-30 minutes to swell. Then add to food and cook for 10-15 minutes. In addition to powders, mushrooms can be made from dried mushrooms, which goes to soups, sauces and other dishes.
Based on materials from the book Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest.
Zvonarev N. M.