Drying mushrooms, this is the most simple and affordable way in all respects, one of the best types of mushroom processing. Being dried, they do not lose their valuable taste and nutritional qualities for a long time, moreover, salted and pickled ones are superior to these indicators. Many edible mushrooms are suitable for drying. But it is best to take mushrooms, which are caloric than other types and which give a special flavor to every dish prepared from them.
Drying of mushrooms, preparation and processing of edible mushrooms before drying, storage of dried mushrooms.
Good taste also have boletus, boletus, oak, butterflies, goats, mushrooms, chanterelles, autumn mushrooms, umbrella mushroom, champignons and some others. Conditionally edible agaric mushrooms are not suitable for this method of harvesting. They contain bitterness that does not disappear when dried..
Preparing mushrooms for drying.
Dried young fresh mushrooms collected in dry and clear weather. In no case should they be washed. This will complicate the heat treatment, and the mushrooms will be worse: lose their nutritional value, aroma, darken. In boletus, in particular, the lower spongy surface of the cap will lose its whiteness and turn gray. Mushrooms need only be wiped with a cloth or clean off forest debris and the ground with a wide brush, knife. In large mushrooms, the leg is cut off, in old ones, the lower porous layer is removed. Small ones, if many are collected, sort the hat to the hat and dry it whole. Large cut in half or in four.
Ceps, so that they dry evenly, are selected in size, and large ones are dried separately from small ones. The leg is completely or partially cut off from the cap (the remaining part should not exceed 3-5 cm.). They are dried separately, without mixing the legs of other species. Black mushrooms (these include those which, when dried, greatly lose their natural color, grow dull: boletus, boletus, oily, mushrooms, goats, etc.) are cut lengthwise from the middle of the hat to the end of the leg and are dried.
More carefully than other mushrooms, morels are prepared for drying. First of all, each leg is cut off flush with a hat. Then the mushrooms (up to 8 cm across in the bottom) are cut into two longitudinal halves, and larger into four longitudinal parts. Mushrooms selected for drying should not be washed. However, this prohibition does not apply to morels. Different insects, sand, forest litter are stuffed into the folds of their hats..
Morels can be cleaned of these harmful impurities only by thorough washing under a strong stream of water. After this is done, the mushrooms are laid out in a thin layer on a sieve or on a towel and kept in a draft until they dry out. Morels are then dried in the same ways as other mushrooms. But the temperature should be slightly lower than that necessary for other species.
Drying mushrooms in various ways.
Mushrooms are dried in various ways. Drying mushrooms is considered ideal in the open air, in the sun. To do this, mushrooms are strung on strong threads and hung on the wall of the house or on wooden supports. Then cover with gauze, thereby protecting from flies and dust, and keep in the sun. If such drying of the mushrooms goes wrong and the mushrooms just dry, they are brought to condition in the oven, in the oven or over a hot stove. Air drying of mushrooms is possible only when the yard is dry. Such weather, unfortunately, is infrequent, especially in mushroom lands..
And the harvested mushrooms do not allow to wait, to catch favorable days. In addition, at the beginning of autumn, when the most powerful mushroom wave is rolling, the sun no longer warms in the summer. If drying the mushrooms in the open air due to the weather or for some other reasons failed, mushrooms can be saved otherwise. The most suitable place for drying mushrooms is the Russian oven. They are placed after baking bread or cooking, when it cools to a temperature of 50-60 degrees. At higher mushrooms fried, and white blacken. At low, on the contrary, they will begin to whip and not dry. The stove, of course, is tidied up: it is freed of everything that was in it, cleaned of coal and ash with a wet broom and a ground broom.
Most often, they take an iron baking sheet for drying, cover it with clean dry straw, onto which mushrooms are laid down at an even distance from each other with an even layer of caps. Sometimes whites, boletus, butterflies and others are simply laid on straw. This is not good enough: mushrooms get dirty and dry unevenly. It is better to make a sieve and dry on it. It is installed on bricks. With this method, the drying of mushrooms is significantly accelerated. Mushrooms are exposed to hot air not only from above, but also from below. Good mushrooms are obtained if dried on wooden racks.
At the beginning of drying, mushrooms are dried at a temperature of 30-50 degrees for 1-3 hours, that is, they are exposed to relatively mild heat. As a result, they will lose a significant part of their moisture and will easily bend. Then the heat treatment continues at a temperature of 70-80 degrees. You can’t immediately start to dry the mushrooms at a very high temperature: they will be baked, not dried. During heat treatment, it is recommended to take the mushrooms together with the stand out of the oven (dryer, oven) 2-3 times and quickly ventilate. This simple technique will help preserve their natural color..
In the Russian oven you can dry all kinds of mushrooms that are suitable for this type of harvest. Special care should be taken when handling morels. These sissies need to be kept in light heat at a temperature not exceeding 50-55 degrees, otherwise they can burn. The drying time of any mushrooms depends on their size. Relatively young, small hats dry in the oven during the day. Larger mushrooms have to be dried at intervals of two to three days. In a city apartment, there are also many opportunities to dry mushrooms. Suitable hot plate, wall of a Dutch oven. One has only to place the knit near them. If the apartment has a gas stove, then mushrooms, having strung on a harsh thread, can be dried above it.
For mushrooms that are above the hot stove, near the stove, it is necessary to maintain the optimum temperature. They should not burn or dry too slowly. The room must be ventilated, do not allow it to warm from evaporation, otherwise the mushrooms will begin to mold and scatter. Mushrooms should be dried until the juice is released when pressed, but they themselves are still elastic and do not break. Dried mushrooms usually crumble. Ceps, chanterelles and parasol mushrooms, if properly processed, light in dried form, dark boletus and boletus boletus. Morels retain their elasticity. They can be squeezed in the hand, however, they quickly take their previous shape.
Dried Mushroom Storage.
Dried mushrooms are very hunt for moisture. From dampness, they get wet, moldy. Moreover, odors are intensively caught and they lose their aroma. That is why it is recommended to store them in closed glass or metal cans, in bags that do not allow moisture. It is also desirable to periodically sort out the mushroom stocks, throwing out spoiled hats and legs.
Based on materials from the book Handbook mushroom picker.