# Dugout, device, dimensions, order of digging a pit and building a roof for a dugout.

The dugout is a covered recess in the ground, dug for housing. In fact, the dugout is a rectangular or rounded pit, with an overlap of poles or logs covered with earth. Not to be confused with a dugout underground fortification. As a rule, a hearth is established inside the dugout, and bunk beds along the walls.

## Dugout, device, dimensions, procedure for digging a pit and building a roof for a dugout.

It makes sense to build a dugout as a long-term shelter for living only when there is a need for a very long stay in one place. When determining the location for dugout equipment, it is necessary to take into account the presence of a nearby source of drinking water, fuel and building material, as well as the level of groundwater in the selected area. The dugout floor must be at least 50 cm above the groundwater level.

The dugout is built from improvised materials. These are various types of soil and forest materials harvested on site. Of the soils, clay is most suitable. From forest materials of trees of coniferous species. The internal size of the dugout depends on the number of people who will be located in it. It is easy to calculate the perimeter of the inner space of the dugout.

1. A resting place for one person (bed): width 60 cm., Length = 180 cm.
2. The width of the corridor (passage) 100 cm.
3. Place for eating (table): length 100 cm. Width 90 cm.

So, if you place the couch for 5 people across the dugout, then its perimeter will be.

Length = 5 beds X at 60 cm (width) = 3 meters.
Width = 180 cm (bed length) + 100 cm (corridor width) + 90 cm (table width) = 3 meters 70 cm.

## Excavation pit, device and dimensions, pit digging procedure.

Find a suitable place and mark the dugout to draw its outline. To prepare logs and poles for overlapping (roof). On the designated area, cut the sod with rectangular pieces, if any, and lay it near the construction site. To open a depression in the ground with a depth of 50 cm over the entire area of ​​the dugout. The scooped soil should not be scattered, but evenly laid around the entire perimeter of the pit, removing one meter, it will then be used.

To retreat from one of the walls by the size of the bed (180 cm) and deepen the foundation pit by 1 meter in depth and 1 meter in width. It will be a corridor. Then take it out of the foundation pit by 2 meters and make steps. This will be the entrance to the dugout outside of the corridor with steps approximately two meters long. The rest of the marked pit of the dugout is a table, measuring: width 90 cm, length 100 cm, and a place for drying clothes, size: length 2 meters, width 90 cm, depth 150 cm, which you just need to deepen to the floor level. Total turned out a ditch under a dugout in the size: width of 3,7 meters, length of 3 meters, depth of 1,5 meters.

## Roof for a dugout, device and dimensions, installation procedure for a roof above a dugout.

Install the vertical support pillars with a thick, bearing part down. Thick supporting part of the support column (uprights): diameter 10-15 cm, thin with a diameter of 8-10 cm.If the soil is weak, then under the lower end of each vertical support log you need to put a solid piece of board, logs or a flat stone and so on. From above, on the support posts, install a longitudinal horizontal support log on which the rafters will then be laid and secure it. Install rafters.

Lay thin and light poles with a diameter of 3-5 cm tightly on the rafters (roof frame) and securely. Or first make shields from them and cover them with the roof frame. Shields for the ceiling of the dugout can be made from reeds, twigs, reeds, grass. The end, back side of the roof of the dugout should be closed with poles, boards, knurling and the like. And make there a ventilation window of about 15X15 cm.

tarpaulin, and the like. Lay a layer of turf on top of the insulating layer. Cover the roof with a layer of soil that has been removed from the pit. Install a furnace if necessary.

Based on the book Survival beyond the threshold of civilization.
Nagorsky S.V..