Edible mushrooms – Classification, categories, features

When it comes to edible mushrooms, it becomes apparent. It can be seen that it can be a bit more difficult to understand. If you can, will try to help.

Let’s start with the simplest – classification. But here’s the garbage … There is no global taxonomic taxonomic, which has no practical significance. Therefore classifications edible mushrooms in Russia and anywhere in Poland can vary significantly. Nevertheless, we will use the Russian classification simply because it is quite intuitive and convenient.

The most commonly used are the categories of the sporiferous layer. So.

According to the structure of the sporiferous layer edible mushrooms are:

  • Tubular It is a sponge. Example – orange-cap boletus, cep, brown boletus, oil-can.
  • Lamellar Covered with lamellar structures. Example – mushrooms, mushrooms, russula, mushrooms, mushrooms.
  • Marsupials. There is no difference between the organ and the spirits. Example – truffles, morels, stitches.
  • Undefined. Previous groups got here. An example is chanterelles. It turns out that they are not tubular, but folded or “pseudotubular”. And raincoats have numerous reproductive organs on the surface.

By categories edible mushrooms are divided into:

  • The first. The most delicious and nutritious mushrooms. These include: white fungus, yellow sap, white white sap, real mushroom, chanterelle present.
  • The second. Quite tasty mushrooms, but their nutritional value is much lower. Boletus, brown sueder, dubovik, all other milk mushrooms, white russula.
  • Third. The taste is average, nutritional, too, but you can eat. Russulae, volnushki, morels, valui, green flywheel, autumn monkey.
  • Fourth. The taste is so low. If there are no other options. Oyster mushrooms, govorushki, dung beetles and all other edible mushrooms.

By this classification by B.P. Cornflowers. It is a simple application. It is also a rule of thumb for its sporiferous layer. It appears that it is much more difficult to condition.

The value of the mushrooms are all divided into:

  • Edible mushrooms. All 4 categories are past classification.
  • Conditionally edible mushrooms.
  • Inedible mushrooms. Just tasteless mushrooms without toxins and hallucinogenic mushrooms.
  • Poisonous mushrooms.

Actually, we are only interested in edible mushrooms, since it was a deal. But we will also talk about this for some reason, then they are better than starvation.

Of us edible mushrooms the first category, the conversation will go on about them.

White mushroom – Borovik

A rather large mushroom with a broad convex cap and a fleshy leg. It turns out that it’s yellow and splits. Leg high (up to 25 cm sometimes), thick, barrel-shaped or club-shaped, covered with a light mesh. The cap is wide, massive, from reddish to almost white. Distributed to the Arctic zones. Vasilkov, already mentioned above, described 18 (!) Variations of ceps, depending on the situation. That is, the variability is significant,

Most often it is confused with gall mushroom (gorchakom). Fortunately, this mushroom is not poisonous, but it is simply disgusting. The main distinctive criteria – the pulp of the gall fungus pinks; mesh on the leg is darker and more pronounced; the tubular layer is pinkish rather than yellowish white.

There is also a risk of confusion. boletus with satanic mushroom which, unfortunately, is poisonous. It is a rough hat, a yellowish-red leg, a blue hat and a pinkish flesh when incised.

Real bum

Or white gruzd. The cap is wide, white, smooth, moist, mucous, with a wrap-around edge (with age – conical). The leg is short, smooth, cylindrical. It is a healthy fruity smell. The plates are wide and frequent.

Most often confused white milk mushrooms with podgruzdkami white (white russula). The main criterion is a drinker and a milky sap, which is only in real drinkers. But even if you mix it up, there will be nothing terrible. Podgruzdok – too edible mushroom.

They are also sometimes confused with white mlechnikami. It is extremely unpleasant for the clerk. It can be obtained easily.

Milk mushrooms are also confused with pale toadstools.


The hat and leg are one. There is no separate collection The peel is practically not separated. The flesh is fleshy, whitish-yellowish. Foxy parasites are extremely disliked, so you rarely see a wormy mushroom. This is the most important distinctive criteria.

Due to the special structure chanterelles poisonous mushrooms is extremely difficult. But confuse her with false chanterelle, which is dangerous to health – extremely easy. Especially when it comes to the criterion, it is not. Besides, false chanterelleKi grow

Red pine and spruce

Slightly reminiscent of milk mushrooms, since they belong to the same genus of mlechnikov. Similarly, they are covered with mucus and secrete juice upon breaking. Even the shape is similar. It is a bit of a bitter carrotne.

Mushrooms are confused with pink waves, which are also edible, but they are so tasty. A distinctive feature is the color of the juice and the cap is mucous, not rough.

And a couple of tips. The mushroom pickers are very fond of writing “bitter taste, bitter juice”. But we will not poison you. There are a lot of safer to pay attention. We also remind you of the fungi, which are not classical morphological manifestations. In this case, it is better to leave them alone. You can, of course, still mycelium. It is better not to risk it.

Edible mushrooms: Classification, categories, features

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