Edible wood and ground mushrooms, appearance, time and place of growth, cooking methods, nutritional value of mushrooms.

Wood and ground mushrooms are good food for survival in emergency and extreme situations, but you must be absolutely sure that it is an edible species. There is no room for error. Unlike plants with which you can apply the edibility test, fungi must either be identified accurately or discarded.. 

Edible wood and ground mushrooms, appearance, time and place of growth, cooking methods, nutritional value of mushrooms.

Wild edible tree and ground mushrooms are a great delicacy if you know which ones to take. Mushrooms consist of many filamentous cells, which in soil fungi form an underground network and only the fruiting body, which we call the mushroom, stands above the ground. This edible part appears only at certain times of the year..

. Their best varieties, such as porcini mushrooms, give as many calories per unit weight as plants. As for minerals: mushrooms have more phosphorus than carrots, cauliflower and spinach, but less calcium. Vitamin B complex is present in most fungi in microscopic quantities, sometimes vitamin C is found, and D is found in many edible mushrooms in acceptable quantities. In chanterelles there is vitamin A. A huge plus of mushrooms is their abundance. At certain times of the year, usually in summer and autumn, you can quickly pick up the amount you need for food.

Edible Wood Mushrooms.

Grow away from the ground on the sides of trees and on stumps. Often are large and leathery, but not dangerous and quite common. The list of edible tree mushrooms in the table below is far from complete..

Title Appearance, time and place of growth Cooking method Note
Common liverwort, hepatic mushroom It occurs in autumn, often grows on oaks. Reddish above, pinkish below, rough surface. Reminiscent of a large tongue, red tissue of the fungus secrete blood-colored juice. Soak until soft, then boil or simmer. Rich in Vitamin C.
Tinder funnel gray-yellow It grows on broad-leaved trees, especially oaks, and on evergreens, starting in the summer, grows up to 30-40 cm across. Orange-yellow color turns into yellowish, internal tissues are spongy, yellowish. Boil and fry. It is considered conditionally edible. To avoid poisoning, you need to pick only young mushrooms, without an unpleasant odor and not on conifers.
Tinder fungus It grows on broad-leaved trees, especially on elms and beech trees, from spring to autumn, often in groups, grows up to 60 cm across. Hat ocher color covered
dark scales and resembles a cork texture.
Finely chop and boil well. Collect only young mushrooms.
Oyster mushroom It grows in groups on broad-leaved trees almost all year round. Dark bluish-gray hats, similar to shells, 6-14 cm wide, white plates under the hat and white rubber-like inner fabrics. Cook or stew. Dry well. Contains the whole complex of B vitamins, ascorbic acid, vitamin PP.
Autumn honey agaric, real honey agaric It grows on deciduous and coniferous trees and stumps from spring to autumn. A brownish-yellow hat 3-15 cm across, brown specks appear on the plates over time, the flesh is white, the roots look like shoe laces. Cook or stew. Undercooking can cause an allergic digestive upset.

Edible Ground Mushrooms.

Ground fungi grow on the soil. There are many species, some very poisonous. The list of edible ground fungi in the table below is far from complete..

Title Appearance, time and place of growth Cooking method Note
Giant raincoat It grows in forests and grassy areas from late summer to autumn. Reminds a ball, up to 30 cm in diameter, smooth, white and leathery, turns yellow with age and can grow up to a weight of 9 kg. Boil or fry. It is edible at a young age when its flesh is elastic, dense, white..
Chanterelle ordinary, chanterelle real It grows in groups near trees, especially birch trees, starting in the summer. It smells of apricot, egg-yellow in color, has the shape of a bell, 3-10 cm across., Distinct plates. Boil and fry. A source of vitamin D2, contains eight essential amino acids, vitamins A, B1, PP, trace elements.
Gray fox Grows in deciduous forests, especially birch, in the fall. It looks like a horn or a bell, a rough dark brown hat 3-8 cm across and a smooth tapering gray leg. Cook or stew. Often grows in large bunches.
Champignon, chilli It grows in autumn, in grassy places, occasionally near trees. The plates are pink; when ripe, dark brown. Edible raw and cooked. Contains 20 amino acids, including all essential for humans.
Variegated Mushroom Umbrella It grows near forests and in open grassy places from early summer to autumn. A brownish hat up to 30 cm in diameter, later covered with darker scales, creamy white plates, thin leg with a double white ring and brown stripes. Edible raw, boiled and fried. It is recommended to eat only young mushrooms..
Boletus edulis, boletus It grows in forests in open areas from late summer to mid autumn. The hat is up to 20 cm in diameter, has a thick leg, white flesh, under the cap of all ceps there is a tubular fabric that looks like a sponge, not a plate. Boil or fry.

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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